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What is NSG? What benefits will India gain if it enters NSG? Why are other countries opposing India’s membership? IAS Mains 2016.
NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty ) was signed in 1968 to prevent spread of nuclear materials,technology and weapons and to develop co-operation among the nations .
This treaty was signed by a total of 191 countries except for India, South Sudan,Israel and Pakistan.This treaty recognised two groups of countries namely the NWS (Nuclear Weapon States) comprising US, UK ,China,France and Russia and the other being NNWS (Non Nuclear Weapon States).
As per this treaty the NWS have committed to complete nuclear disarmament in limited manner while the NNWS have agreed to let go of developing or acquiring nuclear weapons.India and the rest of the countries didnt sign this as they must dismantle all nuclear weapons and place them under international safeguards to become a NNWS member. Indian foreign policy was against this keeping in mind security concerns, for dismantling all our nuclear weapons will makes us more vulnerable if any untoward things happen in the future.
NSG (Nuclear Suppliers Group):
This treaty was signed among 48 nuclear supplying countries to ensure nuclear trade for peaceful purposes and non proliferation on response to India’s nuclear test in 1974 at Pokhran.
This treaty laid norms for nuclear materials and technology which could exported and imported and it also prevents proliferation by banning the sale of few materials used for weapon making.
Why is India seeking to become a member of NSG ? Global IAS Mains Mock Test 2016
India wants to become a player in this international arena where nuclear commerce norms are laid.
If India becomes a member it will have better international market for export as well as for import of nuclear related materials.
For building nuclear reactors, for providing energy we need nuclear materials .By becoming a member of NSG we can have better access of nuclear materials .
All nuclear based programmes of India is being run on indigenous technology.By becoming a member of NSG we will have access to sophisticated foreign technologies.
By becoming a member India can also sell it’s Indigenous technology thereby giving Make In India a face lift.
Why are certain countries opposing India’s entry into NSG ?
India has been trying to get into NSG since 2008. While India is being backed by United States,and Mexico for its membership of NSG( due to commendable efforts by NaMo),it is being opposed by China , Pakistan and other countries on the basis that:
A country which is a non signatory of NPT ,CTBT etc should not be given a NSG membership.
China is putting forward their arguments on the basis that if India is to be granted a seat in NSG ,then all other South Asian countries like Pakistan which were non-signatory of NPT should be granted a seat too.
Meanwhile Pakistan is opposing India’s entry merely because it doesn’t want India to possess high end technologies in the nuclear field. And Pakistan also fears that if India becomes a member it could prevent it from becoming a member just like how China is currently down voting India.
So now on June 24th ,2016 the NSG members meet ended without much discussion on india`s inclusion in to the group.Though its disappointing, we need to analyse the outcome on Technical and political front and we need to put forward our argument in effective manner to NSG in future meets. beacuse NSG decisions are working based on consensus and not based on majority. Expected in IAS Mains-GS 2016 Exam.

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