18 APRIL 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    ABOUT S 400 MISSILE SYSTEM IN INDIA Prelims & Mains
4.    WHO WAS SIR CHHOTU RAM Prelims Specific Topic
5.    DETAILS OF POISON PILL DEFENCE Prelims Specific Topic




Internal Security

  • Context:
  • From Russia, S-400 training equipment and simulators have arrived in India.
  • However, because to the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, the delivery of the second regiment of S-400 from Russia has been delayed.
  • India’s concerns:
  • For imports from Russia, India faces US penalties under CAATSA (Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act). However, nothing is certain at this time.
  • What is the S-400 air defence missile system and what does it do? Why does India need it:
  • The S-400 Triumf is a Russian mobile surface-to-air missile system (SAM)
  • It is the world’s most hazardous operationally deployed modern long-range SAM (MLR SAM), with the US-developed Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system trailing far behind (THAAD).
  • What is CAATSA, and how does it apply to the S-400 deal:
  • The main goal of the Countering America’s Adversaries via Sanctions Act (CAATSA) is to use punitive measures to deter Iran, Russia, and North Korea.
  • In 2017, the law was passed.
  • Sanctions are imposed on countries that conduct major business with Russia’s defence and intelligence sectors.
  • What kind of penalties will be imposed:
  • Loans to the sanctioned individual are prohibited.
  • Export-Import Bank assistance for exports to sanctioned persons is prohibited.
  • The US government is prohibited from procuring goods or services from the sanctioned individual.
  • Visas for people who are close to the sanctioned individual are denied.
  • The Deal’s Importance:
  • The S-400 decision exemplifies how far our defence and strategic alliance has progressed, as well as how strong Indian sovereignty is in selecting international partners, particularly when it comes to matters of national interest and national security.
  • Source – The Hindu



Environmental Conservation related issues

  • Context:
  • On the 16th of April, ammonia levels in the Yamuna river remained high, causing water supply disruptions in areas of Delhi.
  • The ammonia concentration in the river was 7.4 ppm (parts per million), more than seven times the limit that the Delhi Jal Board’s water treatment plants (WTPs) can handle, which is roughly 1 ppm.
  • What is the maximum amount that can be tolerated:
  • According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the permitted maximum quantity of ammonia in drinking water is 0.5 ppm.
  • What exactly is ammonia, and what are its consequences:
  • Ammonia is a colourless gas that is used in the production of fertilisers, plastics, synthetic fibres, dyes, and other industrial chemicals.
  • It is made up of two elements: hydrogen and nitrogen. It’s known as ammonium hydroxide in its aqueous state.
  • This inorganic chemical emits a strong odour.
  • Ammonia is produced naturally in the environment as a byproduct of the decomposition of organic waste.
  • It is less dense than air.
  • Contamination:
  • Industrial effluents or sewage contamination could lead to contamination of ground and surface water sources.
  • Fish are poisoned if the concentration of ammonia in the water exceeds 1 ppm.
  • Long-term intake of water with ammonia levels of 1 ppm or more can harm internal organs in humans.
  • How does it make its way into the Yamuna:
  • The most likely source is sewage from certain unsewered communities along this length of the river, as well as effluents from dye plants, distilleries, and other companies in Haryana’s Panipat and Sonepat districts.
  • What should be done:
  • Strict adherence to regulations prohibiting the discharge of hazardous material into rivers.
  • Assuring that untreated sewage does not enter the water supply.
  • Maintain an ecological flow, which is a minimal flow that can be sustained. This is the minimal amount of water that should flow through the river at all times in order to maintain undersea and estuarine habitats, as well as human livelihoods and self-regulation.
  • Challenges to come:
  • Haryana provides up to 70% of Delhi’s water requirements.
  • Haryana, which has a big agricultural population, has its own water scarcity challenges.
  • Both states have clashed about maintaining 10 cumecs (cubic metre per second) flow in the Yamuna at all times.
  • Over the last decade, both states have gone to court multiple times to obtain what they term an equal share of water.
  • The lack of a minimum ecological flow also entails accumulation of other pollutants. Untreated sewage and garbage from residences, runoff from storm water drains, and effluents from unregulated industries flow after water is collected from the river for treatment in North East Delhi.
  • Source – The Hindu



Government Policies and Interventions

  • Context:
  • Telangana’s government has asked the Ministry of Jal Shakti (MoJS) to refer its complaint filed under Section 3 of the Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956, to the existing Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal-II or Brijesh Kumar Tribunal as soon as possible in order to finalise Telangana’s fair and equitable share of Krishna waters.
  • Concerning the Krishna River Water Dispute:
  • Take a look at this.
  • Water issue between states:
  • 262 regulates the resolution of interstate water conflicts. There are two provisions in it:
  • Any disagreement or complaint about the usage, distribution, or control of waters of any interstate river and river valley may be adjudicated by Parliament by legislation.
  • Parliament may further provide that no other court, including the Supreme Court, has jurisdiction over any such dispute or complaint.
  • The central government has adopted the River Boards Legislation (1956) and the Inter-state Water Disputes Act (1957) under the provisions of the act (1956).
  • The river board statute creates river boards to oversee the regulation and development of the Interstate River and river valleys. A river board like this is formed at the request of the state governments involved.
  • The inter-state water dispute statute gives the federal government the authority to appoint an ad hoc tribunal to resolve a dispute between two or more states over the water of an inter-state river. The ruling of the tribunal would be final and binding. In addition, the legislation precludes the SC and any other court from having jurisdiction in this case.
  • The 1956 Interstate Water Dispute Act raises a number of issues:
  • The Inter State Water Dispute Act of 1956, which establishes a legal framework for resolving such disputes, has a number of flaws, including the lack of a time restriction for settling river water disputes.
  • There is no time restriction for adjudication by a Tribunal, no upper age limit for the Chairman or Members, work can be halted due to a vacancy, and there is no time limit for releasing the Tribunal’s report.
  • Since its enactment, the River Boards Act of 1956, which was designed to encourage inter-state collaboration on water resource development, has remained a “dead letter.”
  • The Central Water Commission (CWC) is in charge of surface water, while the Central Ground Water Board of India is in charge of ground water (CGWB). Both organisations operate independently, and there is no single forum for discussing water management with state governments.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • He was a famous politician in British India’s Punjab Province, having been born in 1881.
  • He fought for the rights of the Indian subcontinent’s oppressed peoples. In 1937, he was knighted for his achievements.
  • He was a member of the National Unionist Party’s founding committee.
  • The Punjab Relief Indebtedness Act of 1934 and the Punjab Debtor’s Protection Act of 1936, which liberated peasants from the clutches of moneylenders and restored the right to land to the tiller, were primarily due to his contributions.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • Twitter has used a corporate tool known as a poison pill to challenge Elon Musk’s offer to buy the firm for more than $43 billion, a defensive technique common to boardrooms trying to fend off takeovers but less familiar to everyday investors.
  • When faced with corporate raiders and aggressive acquisitions in the 1980s, business executives devised this defence mechanism to protect their companies from being taken over by another company, individual, or group.
  • A poison pill is a strategy for making a firm less appealing to a potential acquirer by making it more expensive for the acquirer to buy shares of the target company above a certain price point.
  • Source – The Hindu