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23 APRIL 2022

. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
2.    WHAT IS G-20Prelims & Mains
5.    ABOUT FINCLUVATIONPrelims Specific Topic




Space Exploration Related Topics

  • Context:
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is collaborating with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America to develop the ‘NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR)’ satellite mission for Earth science.
  • About NISAR Mission:
  • The NISAR mission will be launched in 2023.
  • NISAR is an acronym for National Institute of Standards and Research
  • It’s designed to research dangers and global environmental change, and it can assist managers better manage natural resources and scientists better understand the effects and pace of climate change.
  • Over the duration of its three-year mission, it will scan the globe every 12 days to provide a “unprecedented” perspective of the planet by mapping the Earth’s land, ice sheets, and sea ice.
  • It will detect surface movements as small as 0.4 inches over an area half the size of a tennis court.
  • NASA will contribute one of the satellite’s radars, as well as a high-rate science data transfer subsystem, GPS receivers, and a payload data subsystem.
  • ISRO will provide the spacecraft bus, a second type of radar (the S-band radar), as well as the launch vehicle and launch services.
  • NISAR will be equipped with the largest reflector antenna ever launched by NASA, and its primary objectives will include tracking subtle changes in the Earth’s surface, detecting warning signs of impending volcanic eruptions, monitoring groundwater supplies, and tracking the rate at which ice sheets melt.
  • Few other details:
  • The acronym NISAR stands for NASA-ISRO-SAR. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) will be used by NASA to measure changes in the Earth’s surface.
  • SAR is a term that refers to a method of creating high-resolution photographs. Because of its precision, the radar can see through clouds and darkness, allowing it to collect data at any time of day or night, in all weather.
  • Source – The Hindu

2 – WHAT IS G-20:


International Organizations

  • Context:
  • As Russian officials began to speak, US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen and her counterparts from the predominantly western bloc stormed out of a G20 finance experts meeting.
  • This was a boycott in protest of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
  • Officials from at least 10 other countries, including Indonesia, China, India, Brazil, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia, were not present.
  • What exactly is the problem:
  • These nations have stood firm in the face of Russian aggression and war crimes.
  • According to them, Russia’s illegal invasion of Ukraine poses a serious threat to world economic stability.
  • They urged that Russia be excluded from or excluded from these sessions.
  • What exactly is the G20?
  • The G20 is a gathering of leaders from the world’s largest and fastest-growing economies held every year.
  • Its members account for 85% of global GDP and two-thirds of the world’s population.
  • The “Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy” is the official name of the G20 Summit.
  • Establishment:
  • Following the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-1998, it was recognised that large developing market countries needed to be included in discussions about the international financial system, and the G7 finance ministers agreed to form the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors conference in 1999.
  • Presidency:
  • Because the organisation does not have its own permanent staff, the president is rotated every year in December by a G20 country from a different region.
  • The following year, that country is in charge of organising the next summit, as well as smaller events.
  • They also have the option of inviting non-member countries as guests.
  • After a financial crisis in East Asia impacted several countries throughout the world, the first G20 conference was held in Berlin in 1999.
  • G20 membership in its entirety:
  • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, UK, US, and European Union
  • Its relevance in today’s world:
  • As globalisation advances and various issues become increasingly intertwined, recent G20 summits have focused not only on macroeconomics and trade, but also on a wide range of global issues that have a significant impact on the global economy, such as development, climate change and energy, health, counter-terrorism, and migration and refugees.
  • Through its contributions to tackling these global concerns, the G20 has aimed to create a more inclusive and sustainable world.
  • Source – The Hindu



Environmental Conservation related topic

  • Context:
  • The report of the Standing Committee on Science, Technology, Environment, and Climate Change, chaired by Rajya Sabha member Jairam Ramesh, has been submitted.
  • The Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2021, which was introduced in the Lok Sabha in December 2021, is examined in this study.
  • Significance:
  • While most Standing Committee reports on Bills focus on criticism of the Bill’s language, this report focused on the topic of Human-Animal Conflict, which was not addressed in the proposed revisions, because it was “a complicated issue as serious as hunting” that required “legislative support.”
  • The following are some key recommendations for reducing human-animal conflict:
  • The paper suggests forming a HAC Advisory Committee, which would be led by the Chief Wild Life Warden, who would consult the committee before acting.
  • A small committee with in-depth technical knowledge is required to develop effective site-specific plans/ mitigation methods, including recommendations on changing cropping patterns, and to make key decisions on short notice, as required by law.
  • Human-wildlife conflict: a report by the WWF and the UNEP:
  • In July 2021, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) presented a report titled A future for all – the need for human-wildlife cooperation.
  • The following are some of the report’s highlights:
  • Human-animal conflict is one of the most serious dangers to the long-term survival of some of the world’s most iconic species.
  • More than 75 percent of the world’s wild cat species are killed as a result of warfare. Polar bears and Mediterranean monk seals, as well as huge herbivores like elephants, are also affected.
  • Since 1970, global wildlife populations have decreased by 68 percent on average.
  • Situation in India:
  • Between 2014-2015 and 2018-2019, around 500 elephants were killed, largely as a result of human-elephant conflict.
  • During the same time span, elephant conflict claimed the lives of 2,361 people.
  • Because India has the world’s second-largest human population as well as substantial populations of tigers, Asian elephants, one-horned rhinos, Asiatic lions, and other species, it will be the most affected by human-wildlife conflict.
  • What should be done?
  • It is impossible to completely eliminate human-wildlife conflict. However, well-planned, integrated approaches to controlling it can lessen conflicts and lead to human-animal cooperation.
  • Model of Sonitpur:
  • Destruction of forests in Assam’s Sonitpur area caused elephants to raid fields, resulting in the deaths of both elephants and humans.
  • In response, during the years 2003-2004, WWF India developed the ‘Sonitpur Model,’ which united community members with the state forest department.
  • They were taught how to work with elephants to safely drive them away from crop fields.
  • WWF India also designed a low-cost, single-strand, non-lethal electric fence to make crop protection easier.
  • Crop losses were reduced to nil over the next four years. The number of people and elephants killed has also decreased dramatically.
  • The Standing Committee of the National Board of Wildlife (SC-NBWL) has authorised an advisory for the management of Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC):
  • As per the WildLife (Protection) Act, 1972, empower gramme panchayats to deal with problematic wild animals.
  • Use the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna’s add-on coverage to compensate for agricultural damage caused by HWC.
  • Increase the amount of fodder and water available in forest areas.
  • Other recommendations include the formation of inter-departmental committees at the local/state level, the implementation of early warning systems, the creation of barriers, and the establishment of dedicated circle-based Control Rooms with toll-free hotline numbers that could be operational 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Source – The Hindu



Election related issues

  • Context:
  • The Delhi High Court has dismissed a public interest lawsuit that sought to have election symbols removed off ballot papers for the city’s municipal elections.
  • What exactly is the problem?
  • The petitioner said that the goal of municipal elections is “local self-governance,” which is “disappeared” when political party electoral insignia appear on ballot papers.
  • A candidate who has an existing emblem of a recognised political party has an unfair advantage over a candidate who has an unknown symbol, according to the complaint.
  • To begin, how are political parties assigned symbols?
  • To be assigned a symbol, follow the guidelines:
  • When filing nomination papers, a party or candidate must furnish a list of three symbols from the EC’s free symbols list.
  • One symbol is assigned to each party or candidate on a first-come, first-served basis.
  • When a recognised political party splits, the Election Commission decides on the symbol to be assigned.
  • Election Commission’s Authority:
  • The EC has the authority to recognise political parties and allot emblems under the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968.
  • It has the authority to resolve disputes between rival groups or portions of a recognised political party claiming the party’s name and emblem under paragraph 15 of the Order.
  • The EC is also the sole authority with which to resolve disputes or mergers. In Sadiq Ali and others versus. ECI in 1971, the Supreme Court recognised its legality.
  • How many different kinds of symbols do you have?
  • The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) (Amendment) Order, 2017, specifies that party symbols must be one of the following:
  • Reserved: There are “reserved” insignia for eight national parties and 64 state parties across the country.
  • Free: The Election Commission maintains a pool of roughly 200 “free” symbols that are distributed to the thousands of unregistered regional parties that spring up in the run-up to elections.
  • When a party splits, what rights does the Electoral Commission have in a dispute over the election symbol?
  • “When the Commission is satisfied that there are rival sections or groups of a recognised political party, each of whom claims to be that party, the Commission may decide that one such rival section or group or none of such rival sections or groups is that recognised political party, and the decision of the Commission shall be binding on all such rival sectio
  • This is true for recognised national and state parties in disputes (like the LJP, in this case). The EC normally recommends warring groups to resolve their disagreements privately or go to court in the case of breakdowns in registered but unrecognised parties.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • Fincluvation is a cooperative venture between India Post Payments Bank (IPPB), a 100 percent government-owned corporation under the Department of Posts (DoP), and the Fintech Startup community to co-create and innovate solutions for financial inclusion.
  • Fincluvation is a first-of-its-kind initiative in the financial services industry to construct a powerful platform to mobilise the start-up community in the development of meaningful financial products aimed at financial inclusion.
  • Fincluvation will be an ongoing venue for IPPB to collaborate with start-ups to develop equitable financial solutions.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • Every year on April 21, the Government of India commemorates ‘Civil Services Day’ as an opportunity for civil officials to recommit themselves to the cause of citizens and renew their vows to public service and work excellence.
  • This date was chosen to commemorate the day in 1947 when Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the first Home Minister of Independent India, addressed the probationers of Administrative Services Officers at Metcalf House in Delhi.
  • The Prime Minister’s Awards for Excellence in Public Administration are granted to Districts/Implementing Units for priority programme implementation and innovation categories on Civil Servant Day.
  • Source – The Hindu


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