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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS

28 APRIL 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    ABOUT GRAVITATIONAL LENSING Prelims & Mains
2.    DETAILS OF NASA’S LUCY MISSION Prelims & Mains
3.    ABOUT INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION Prelims & Mains
4.    DETAILS OF RIVER RANCHING Prelims & Mains
5.    WEAPONS SUMMIT FOR UKRAINE HOSTED BY USA Prelims Specific Topic

 

1 – ABOUT GRAVITATIONAL LENSING: 

GS III

Space related topic

  • Context:
  • This article is part of The Hindu’s Science for All newsletter, which explains science in layman’s terms.
  • What is gravitational lensing, and how does it work? What is the mechanism behind it?
  • Gravitational lensing is a result of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which states that mass bends light.
  • Light beams travelling close to a huge object (and hence through its gravitational field) will be twiste and refocused somewhere else due to the gravitational field of that object extending far into space.
  • The stronger the gravitational field of an item, and thus the greater the bending of light rays, just as employing denser materials to construct optical lenses leads in a greater amount of refraction.
  • Benefits:
  • Cosmologists utilise gravitational lensing because it is directly sensitive to the amount and distribution of dark matter.
  • Astronomers can use lensing to figure out how much dark matter there is in the Universe as a whole and how it is distributed.
  • The technique of lensing has also been used to confirm the existence of dark matter.
  • Source – The Hindu

2 – DETAILS OF NASA’S LUCY MISSION:

GS III

Space related topic

  • Context:
  • Lucy, NASA’s mission to study a collection of asteroids that orbit Jupiter behind and in front of it, hit a snag recently when one of its solar arrays failed to unfold.
  • Over the next few months, NASA will complete two procedures to fully reveal an unfurled solar array.
  • About Lucy Mission:
  • This is NASA’s first mission to examine the Jupiter Trojan asteroids, which will launch in October 2022.
  • The mission is solar-powered.
  • It will last roughly 12 years, during which time the spacecraft will visit eight asteroids across a distance of about 6.3 billion kilometres to learn more about the “early solar system.”
  • The mission’s goal is to:
  • The mission’s goal is to figure out what makes up the many asteroids that make up the Trojan asteroid swarms, determine their mass and densities, and search for and investigate any satellites or rings that may orbit the Trojan asteroids.
  • What are Trojan Asteroids, and what do they do? What is the meaning of their name?
  • These asteroids are thought to represent the leftovers of the early solar system, and studying them will help scientists better comprehend the solar system’s origins and evolution, as well as why it looks the way it does.
  • The Trojan asteroids are thought to be made of the same material that led to the construction of planets about 4 billion years ago when the solar system was created.
  • Source – The Hindu

3 – ABOUT INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION:

GS II/III

International Relations & Economy

  • Context:
  • Under the public-private partnership (PPP) model in Maharashtra, the Medical Education and Drugs Department (MEDD) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) have teamed together to prioritise health care initiatives with a focus on Medical Education.
  • The PPPs to establish super-specialty hospitals and medical education institutions across the state will have IFC as their transaction advisor.
  • The International Finance Corporation (IFC):
  • It is a non-profit organisation that provides financial assistance to developing countries.
  • It is an international financial institution that provides investment, consultancy, and asset management services to help developing countries build their private sector.
  • It is based in Washington, D.C., and is a member of the World Bank Group.
  • It was founded in 1956 as the World Bank Group’s private sector arm to promote economic development by investing in exclusively for-profit and commercial enterprises with the goal of reducing poverty and promoting development.
  • Although the IFC is owned and managed by its member countries, it has its own executive leadership and personnel to run its day-to-day operations.
  • It is a corporation whose shareholders are member countries who contribute paid-in capital and have voting rights in its affairs.
  • Roles and responsibilities:
  • The IFC has been focusing on a set of development goals that its programmes are supposed to achieve since 2009. Its objectives are to expand opportunities for sustainable agriculture, improve healthcare and education, expand access to financing for microfinance and business clients, improve infrastructure, assist small enterprises in growing revenues, and invest in climate health.
  • It provides a variety of loan and equity financing services and assists businesses in addressing their risk exposures without taking on management responsibilities.
  • It advises governments on how to improve infrastructure and partnerships to help the private sector grow.
  • Source – The Hindu

4 – DETAILS OF RIVER RANCHING:

GS III

Environmental Conservation related issues

  • Context:
  • ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), Prayagraj, has released over 10,000 fish fingerlings of Indian main carps — catla, rohu, and mrigal — in the Ganga at Sangam nose as part of a ranching operation.
  • The effort was carried out in order to save and promote fish species that are on the verge of extinction in the Ganga.
  • Program for River Ranching:
  • In the year 2021, Uttar Pradesh initiated the National River Ranching Program.
  • What is River Ranching and how does it work?
  • River ranching is a type of aquaculture in which a fish population (such as salmon) is kept in captivity for the first few years of their lives.
  • They are then released, and when they return to their freshwater birthplace to spawn, they are harvested as adults.
  • Description of the Program:
  • The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) project established river ranching as a specific activity to augment and promote fish production and productivity by expanding, intensifying, diversifying, and using land and water productively.
  • What is the name of the implementing agency?
  • The National Fisheries Development Board in Hyderabad is the PMMSY’s principal nodal agency.
  • What is the program’s purpose?
  • The need for high-quality protein and seafood is gradually increasing as the human population grows. As a result, the River Ranching Program was established to promote the sustainable use and conservation of fishery resources in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner.
  • This initiative will aid in the development of sustainable fisheries, the conservation of biodiversity, the assessment of ecosystem services, the reduction of habitat degradation, and the maximisation of social and economic benefits.
  • It will also ensure that traditional fisheries, trade, and social protection of inland residents, as well as ecological sustainability, are all improved.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) scheme entails the following:
  • It is a plan for the country’s fisheries sector to flourish in a concentrated and long-term manner.
  • As part of the AatmaNirbhar Bharat Package, a total of 20,050 crores has been sanctioned for its execution during a five-year period from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25 in all States/Union Territories.
  • Beneficiary-oriented operations in marine, inland, and aquaculture are the emphasis of the scheme.
  • It aspires to use “cluster or area-based techniques.”
  • The scheme’s goals and objectives are as follows:
  • Increase fish production by 70 lakh tonne between 2024 and 2025.
  • By 2024-25, increase fisheries export profits to Rs.1,000 crore.
  • Fishermen and fish farmers have doubled their earnings.
  • Reduce post-harvest losses from 20 to 25 percent to around 10%.
  • Increase the number of direct and indirect gainful job possibilities in the fisheries sector and related activities by 55 lakhs.
  • Source – The Hindu

5 – WEAPONS SUMMIT FOR UKRAINE HOSTED BY USA:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • Top US officials met with friends in Germany recently to discuss supplying Kyiv with more weapons to ward off Russia’s attack.
  • The Russian invasion of Ukraine, which is now in its ninth week, has sparked significant indignation among Western countries that have offered weaponry and other support to Ukraine’s embattled President Volodymyr Zelensky.
  • Source – The Hindu

 

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