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30 APRIL 2022

. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
2.    BHIMA KOREGOUN BATTLEPrelims & Mains
3.    AFSPAPrelims & Mains
5.    WORLD COAL ASSOCIATIONPrelims Specific Topic




Government Policies and Interventions

  • Context:
  • A convention of dairy farmers has requested that the Karnataka Prevention of Slaughter and Preservation of Cattle Act be repealed as soon as possible, accusing the government of inducing panic psychosis among farmers.
  • Concerns:
  • Farmers were being harassed by police who were enforcing the law.
  • While farmers are protected by a ban on cow slaughter, corporations are nevertheless allowed to sell and export meat.
  • Even if their cows are sterile, farmers are prohibited from selling them to slaughterhouses. As a result, a greater number of farmers, particularly dairy farmers, are abandoning farming and related businesses.
  • Even cattle transport had become problematic, as farmers had to obtain authorization from numerous authorities involved.
  • What are the requirements?
  • Until the legislation is repealed, the government should purchase sterile cows from farmers at market rates.
  • The term “cow, calf of a cow, bull, bullock, and he or she buffalo under the age of 13 years” is defined in the statute as “cow, calf of a cow, bull, bullock, and he or she buffalo under the age of 13 years.”
  • Provisions that are divisive:
  • Who has the authority to carry out searches?
  • Police personnel with the level of sub-inspector or higher, or a competent authority, shall be able to search a location and seize cattle and materials used or intended to be used in the crime.
  • If any seizures occur, they will be notified to the Sub Divisional Magistrate as soon as possible.
  • What are the consequences?
  • It is a punishable offence, with penalties ranging from three to seven years in prison for violators.
  • While the first offence can result in a fine of between Rs 50,000 and Rs 5 lakh, the second and subsequent offences can result in fines of between Rs 1 lakh and Rs 10 lakh.
  • The dairy industry will be the most negatively affected by the legislation. With an annual revenue of Rs 6.5 lakh crore, India’s dairy industry is the country’s largest agricultural commodity.
  • Dairy producers in India earn more than wheat and rice combined. With one cow for every four Indians, India has nearly as many bovines as the United States.
  • The difficulty with the bill is that slaughter is necessary for the dairy sector to run economically. Dairy farming in India operates on razor-thin profit margins. As a result, unproductive animals’ upkeep would knock their bottom lines out of whack.
  • Source – The Hindu



Modern Indian History

  • Context:
  • Sharad Pawar, the head of the Nationalist Congress Party, recently filed an additional affidavit with the Koregaon Bhima investigation commission, proposing “legal reforms” that include:
  • Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code should be repealed (offence of sedition).
  • Section 66A of the Information Technology Act is being reintroduced.
  • A requirement for:
  • This is required to ensure that law enforcement authorities can keep the peace and avert rioting.
  • Section 124A Misuse:
  • Section 124A is “frequently misapplied against persons who criticise the government, restricting their freedoms, and tending to suffocate any peaceful and democratic voice of opposition.”
  • Section 66A of the Information Technology Act:
  • Commission of Inquiry on Koregaon Bhima:
  • On February 9, 2018, the state government formed a two-member commission, led by retired high court justice J N Patel and including former chief secretary Sumit Malik, to investigate the “exact sequence” of events that led to violence on the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Koregaon Bhima on January 1.
  • The Battle of Bhima-Koregaon:
  • On January 1, 1818, the Peshwa soldiers and the British clashed in Bhima Koregaon, an area in Pune with a significant historical Dalit link.
  • The British army, which was mostly made up of Dalit soldiers, fought the Peshwa army, which was dominated by upper castes. The Peshwa army was beaten by British soldiers.
  • The battle’s outcomes were as follows:
  • The triumph was viewed as a victory over prejudice and injustice based on caste. The Peshwas were known for oppressing and persecuting Mahar dalits. The win over the Peshwas provided dalits with a moral victory, a victory over caste-based discrimination and tyranny, as well as a sense of belonging.
  • However, the British divide and rule policy caused various fissures in Indian society, which are still present today in the form of excessive caste and religious discrimination, which must be addressed in accordance with the Constitution’s precepts.
  • Why is Bhima Koregaon regarded as a Dalit icon?
  • Because a considerable number of troops in the Company army were Mahar Dalits, the battle has become a symbol of Dalit pride. Because the Peshwas, who were Brahmins, were perceived as oppressors of Dalits, the Mahar troops’ success over the Peshwa force is viewed as a win for Dalits.
  • R. Ambedkar paid a visit to the memorial monument erected on the site, which commemorates the names of the fallen, including over two dozen Mahar warriors, on January 1, 1927. The Mahars were the men that fought in the battle of Koregaon, and the Mahars are Untouchables.
  • Source – The Hindu

3 – AFSPA:


Internal Security of India

  • Context:
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has stated that efforts are being made to repair the law-and-order situation in the northeast so that the controversial Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act of 1958 can be repealed totally.
  • Due to tranquil situations in Assam, Manipur, and Nagaland since 2014, he stated the AFSPA could be partially withdrawn (starting April 1).
  • What does the acronym AFSPA stand for?
  • In plain English, AFSPA empowers armed troops to protect public order in “disturbed areas.”
  • Armed forces are given the following powers:
  • If they believe a person is breaking the law, they have the ability to prevent a gathering of five or more people in a given location, use force, or even open fire after giving fair warning.
  • The army can also arrest a person without a warrant, enter or search a person’s home without a warrant, and prohibit the possession of firearms if there is probable suspicion.
  • Any person detained or arrested may be handed over to the officer in charge of the local police station, along with a report explaining the facts surrounding the arrest.
  • What does it mean to be in a “disturbed area,” and who has the authority to proclaim one?
  • A disturbed area is one that has been declared by notification under the AFSPA’s Section 3. Differences or arguments between members of different religious, racial, language, or regional groups, castes, or communities can cause havoc in an area.
  • The Central Government, the Governor of the State, or the Administrator of the Union Territory can declare a disturbed area in whole or part of the State or Union Territory.
  • Is there a review of the Act in the works?
  • The central government constituted a five-member committee led by Justice B P Jeevan Reddy on November 19, 2004, to assess the act’s provisions in the north eastern states.
  • In 2005, the committee issued a report that included the following recommendations: (a) AFSPA should be repealed, and appropriate provisions should be inserted in the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967; (b) the Unlawful Activities Act should be modified to clearly specify the powers of the armed forces and paramilitary forces; and (c) grievance cells should be established in each district where the armed forces are deployed.
  • The AFSPA was also recommended for repeal in the Fifth Report of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission on Public Order.
  • The Supreme Court’s 1997 decision in Naga People’s Movement for Human Rights versus Union of India established rules for the implementation of AFSPA:
  • The right to use deadly force under Section 4(a) of the AFSPA should only be used in “limited circumstances,” according to a 1997 Constitution Bench decision.
  • “The authority to cause death is related to maintaining public order in a disturbed region and is to be exercised under certain circumstances,” the court said.
  • A declaration by a high-level authority that an area is “disturbed” is one of these prerequisites. The officer in question decides to use fatal force because he believes it is “necessary” to keep the peace. However, he must first provide “proper notice.”
  • The individuals targeted by the armed forces should have been “engaging in violation of any law or order in force in the disturbed area at the time of the operation.”
  • The Naga assassinations highlight AFSPA’s flaws:
  • A group of daily wage labourers returning to their hamlet were slain by the 21 Para Commando squad in December 2021, reportedly after receiving information that some NSCN(K) militants were passing through the area.
  • Following the assassinations, Chief Minister Neiphiu Rio urged that the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act be repealed.
  • Rio chastised the Union Government for renewing Nagaland’s “disturbed area” designation every year.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • The LFPR is the percentage of the working-age population (15 years or older) that is looking for work; it measures the “demand” for jobs in a given economy.
  • Those who are employed and those who are unemployed are both included.
  • Why is it in the news?
  • The LFPR in India is not only lower than the rest of the globe, but it is also decreasing.
  • LFPR is around 60% all around the world. It has been declining in India for the past ten years, falling from 47 percent in 2016 to just 40 percent in December 2021.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • The World Coal Association (WCA) is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation headquartered in London, England.
  • It was designed to symbolise the global coal industry.
  • The World Coal Institute (WCI) was the previous name of the organisation, which was changed in November 2010.
  • The WCA engages in lobbying, holds workshops, and informs decision-makers about coal.
  • It is a co-author of a paper on coal’s future in ASEAN countries.
  • Source – The Hindu


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