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04 APRIL 2022 – CA

. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    BAMIYAN BUDDHAPrelims & Mains
2.    HINDU NEW YEAR FESTIVALPrelims & Mains
3.    WITHDRAWAL OF AFSPAPrelims & Mains
4.    VANNIYARS COMMUNITYPrelims & Mains




Topic – Indian Culture

  • The Taliban leadership in Afghanistan guaranteed the world that it would maintain and conserve Mes Aynak’s Buddhist legacy.
  • More info:
  • Several Buddhist-related antique sculptural and architectural masterpieces were destroyed by the Taliban administration in Mes Aynak (2001).
  • When the Taliban dictatorship retook power, many people were understandably concerned.
  • The dictatorship, on the other hand, has guaranteed the world that it will preserve the varied Buddhist history.
  • One of the main reasons for this is to assure investment in the country, as the administration has been experiencing economic difficulties since taking power.
  • The Buddhas of Bamiyan:
  • The Bamiyan valley, located in the Hindu Kush mountains along the Bamiyan River, was an important node of the early Silk Routes, serving as a crossroads for both commercial and cultural interchange.
  • The Bamiyan Buddha statues, carved out of sandstone cliffs, are thought to date from the 5th century AD and were formerly the world’s tallest standing Buddhas.
  • The creative styles of the Gupta, Sassanian, and Hellenistic periods were perfectly blended in these statues.
  • In 2001, the Taliban administration demolished Salsal and Shamana (two of the region’s tallest Buddha sculptures), as the locals termed them.
  • The remains of the Bamiyan Buddhas were added to UNESCO’s list of world historic monuments in 2003.
  • The statue of Salsal was “recreated” – a 3D projection was beamed at the alcove where it had stood — on March 9, 2021, to commemorate 20 years since their destruction.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Indian Culture

  • On the occasion of Ugadi, India’s President sent greetings to the entire country and Indians all around the world.
  • Ugadi is a place in Ugadi, India.
  • In India, this celebration celebrates the start of the traditional New Year.
  • It is recognised by several names across the country, including Ugadi or Yugadi in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Telangana.
  • Maharashtra:Gudi Padwa Sindhis:Cheti Chand Maharashtra:Gudi Padwa Sindhis:Cheti Chand Sindhis:Cheti
  • Navreh (Kashmir)
  • Ugadi is observed on the first day of the Hindu lunisolar calendar month of Chaitra.
  • Lord Brahma is said to have begun the creation of the universe on Ugadi, according to Hindu mythology.
  • In states like Maharashtra, there is also a celebration of Durga’s nine forms (Chaitra Navami) around this time.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Internal Security

  • Context:
  • The Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), which gives the military broad powers, has been repealed in sections of three Northeastern states: Assam, Nagaland, and Manipur. AFSPA is still in effect in parts of these three states, as well as in Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • What does the acronym AFSPA stand for:
  • In plain English, AFSPA empowers armed troops to protect public order in “disturbed areas.”
  • What does it mean to be in a “disturbed area,” and who has the authority to proclaim one:
  • A disturbed area is one that has been declared by notification under the AFSPA’s Section 3. Differences or arguments between members of different religious, racial, language, or regional groups, castes, or communities can cause havoc in an area.
  • The Central Government, the Governor of the State, or the Administrator of the Union Territory can declare a disturbed area in whole or part of the State or Union Territory.
  • AFSPA’s powers:
  • AFSPA, which has been dubbed “draconian,” provides the military broad authority. For example, it authorises them to open fire, potentially killing anyone who is breaking the law or carrying arms and ammunition, and it provides them the authority to arrest people without warrants on the basis of “reasonable suspicion,” as well as search people’s homes without warrants.
  • Why is it important to remove AFSPA from portions of the Northeast:
  • Will minimise alienation: For nearly 60 years, the Northeast has been under the shadow of AFSPA, generating a sense of isolation from the rest of the country.
  • Demilitarize the territory: The move is likely to assist in demilitarising the region by removing limitations on travel via checkpoints and residents’ frisking.
  • Calm animosity over recent killings in Nagaland: The action covers some districts in Nagaland and Manipur previously red-flagged by the armed forces. It will also assist the Centre in defusing public outrage over the Mon killings in Nagaland.
  • Why has AFSPA been repealed now, after being in place for so long:
  • Drop in insurgencies: Various sections of the Northeast have seen a reduction in insurgencies, some of which are over 60 years old, over the last two decades. All of Nagaland’s major political parties, including the NSCN(I-M) and Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs), are nearing completion of agreements with the government.
  • Since 2012, when the Supreme Court began hearing a PIL on extrajudicial executions, militancy and severe militarisation in Manipur have been on the decline.
  • Fast-track development: The North-east region has seen greater investment in essential infrastructure and community-related projects, and residents have expressed a desire to own and work with government in development efforts.
  • In the first place, why was AFSPA imposed on the Northeast?
  • To put down Naga nationalist activities, the following measures were taken: When the Naga nationalist movement began in the 1950s with the formation of the Naga National Council — the forerunner to the NSCN — Assam police allegedly used force to suppress it. As an armed movement grew in Nagaland, Parliament passed the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), which was then applied across the entire state.
  • Manipur: It was implemented in the three Naga-dominated districts of Senapati, Tamenglong, and Ukhrul, where the NNC was active, in Manipur in 1958.
  • As secessionist and nationalist movements grew in other Northeastern states, AFSPA was expanded and implemented.
  • What is it about AFSPA that makes it so unpopular with the public:
  • Army breaches of human rights: The people of Nagaland have suffered psychological effects, trauma, and estrangement as a result of 60 years of living under the AFSPA rule. The use of force and AFSPA exacerbated the Naga people’s sense of isolation, cementing Naga nationalism.
  • Fake encounters are a problem: Families of extrajudicial death victims filed a writ suit in the Supreme Court in 2012, alleging that 1,528 fictitious encounters occurred in the state between May 1979 and May 2012. Six of these cases were investigated by a commission established by the Supreme Court, and all six were proven to be phoney encounters.
  • Inadequate checks and balances: While the Act allows security officers the authority to fire, they cannot do so without first alerting the suspect. It states that the armed forces must work in tandem with the district government rather than acting independently. However, such a process has only been followed in a few cases.
  • Cases in Nagaland have not been thoroughly explored. The CBI has only probed 39 cases (94 killings) in Manipur since the Supreme Court took up the issue of extrajudicial killings.
  • Is there a review of the Act in the works:
  • The central government constituted a five-member committee led by Justice B P Jeevan Reddy on November 19, 2004, to assess the act’s provisions in the north eastern states.
  • In 2005, the committee issued a report that included the following recommendations: (a) AFSPA should be repealed, and appropriate provisions should be inserted in the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967; (b) the Unlawful Activities Act should be modified to clearly specify the powers of the armed forces and paramilitary forces; and (c) grievance cells should be established in each district where the armed forces are deployed.
  • The AFSPA was also recommended for repeal in the Fifth Report of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission on Public Order.
  • G K Pillai, the former home secretary, backed the abolition of AFSPA as well. Former Home Minister P Chidambaram has suggested that the Act be changed rather than scrapped.
  • What are the positions of state governments on the law:
  • While the Act allows the central government the authority to apply AFSPA unilaterally, this is normally done informally in consultation with the state governments. However, in other cases, such as the implementation of AFSPA in Tripura in 1972, the Centre has overruled the state.
  • The Nagaland Assembly recently passed a resolution repealing the AFSPA: Civil society organisations have been at the forefront of the movement to repeal AFSPA. Until the Oting shooting in Nagaland, no state administration has publicly advocated that AFSPA be repealed. Following Oting, the Nagaland Assembly for the first time passed a resolution calling for the removal of the AFSPA.
  • Source – The Hindu 


Topic – Prelims Specific Topic                                                            

  • Vanniyars are one of Tamil Nadu’s most backward communities, with great political clout.
  • They have long advocated for quotas, and as a result of their clout, they were the only community to be granted a 10.5 percent quota inside the MBC (Most Backward Class) quota, which was later cancelled by the Supreme Court as “unconstitutional” and a breach of the right to equality.
  • Source – The Hindu


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