01 APRIL 2022 – CA

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
2.    PM GATI SHAKTI SCHEME Prelims & Mains
3.    MINIMUM SUPPORT PRICE Prelims & Mains
4.    CREDIT DEFAULT SWAP Prelims & Mains




Topic – Government Polices and Interventions

  • Context:
  • The Union of India has approved the “New India Literacy Programme (NILP),” a centrally sponsored scheme.
  • The NILP has been approved for the next five years (2022-27) in order to align all aspects of adult education with the National Education Policy, 2020. (NEP).
  • Because the previous nomenclature did not apply to nonliterates aged 15 and up, the Education ministry has elected to adopt ‘Education for All’ rather than ‘Adult Education.’
  • Objectives:
  • Its purpose is to assist states and union territories in improving literacy among nonliterates aged 15 and up.
  • Coverage:
  • During the implementation period of 2022-23 to 2026-27, it would cover 5 crore non-literates across the country.
  • Funding:
  • The project has been authorised with a financial outlay of Rs.1037.90 crore, which includes a Rs.700.00 crore Central share and a Rs.337.90 crore State contribution.
  • The scheme is made up of five parts:
  • Literacy and numeracy are foundational skills.
  • Important Life Skills
  • Vocational Skills Development is a term used to describe the process of improving one’s
  • Education at its most basic level.
  • Continuing Education is a term that refers to the process of learning
  • The following are the key aspects of the NILP:
  • School kids, pre-service students from Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), teachers, and Anganwadi and ASHA workers are also involved.
  • The idea will be implemented through a school.
  • Use of ICT and online implementation of the programme using OTLAS material and resources via digital media, such as TV, radio, mobile phone-based free/open-source Apps/portals, and so on.
  • Implementation:
  • Volunteerism in the form of online volunteering will be used to carry out the scheme.
  • Face-to-face training, orientation, and workshops for volunteers are all possible. All materials and resources must be made available in digital format.
  • The idea will be implemented through a school.
  • Schools will be used to perform beneficiary and volunteer teacher surveys.
  • A requirement for:
  • According to the 2011 Census, the total number of non-literates in the country aged 15 and up is 25.76 crore (Male 9.08 crore, Female 16.68 crore).
  • In addition, it is projected that roughly 18.12 crore adults in India are still illiterate, despite the fact that the number of people certified as literates increased by 7.64 crore under the Saakshar Bharat initiative, which ran from 2009-10 to 2017-18.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Government Polices and Interventions

  • Context:
  • PM Gati Shakti comprises the geographical mapping of the entire country, with many layers of maps that communicate with one another, resulting in integrated planning and greater time and cost efficienc
  • What is the definition of geospatial technology:
  • For geographic mapping and analysis, geospatial technology employs techniques such as GIS (Geographic Information System), GPS (Global Positioning System), and Remote Sensing.
  • These devices record spatial data about things, events, and phenomena (indexed to their geographical location on earth, geotag). The location information might be either static or dynamic.
  • Static location data includes things like the location of a road, an earthquake, or child malnutrition in a certain region, whereas dynamic location data includes things like data from a moving vehicle or pedestrian, the spread of an infectious illness, and so on.
  • The method could be used to construct intelligent maps to aid in the detection of spatial patterns in massive datasets.
  • The technology makes it easier to make decisions based on the value and priority of scarce resources.
  • PM GatiShakti’s bio
  • It’s a digital platform that unites 16 government departments, including Roads and Highways, Railways, Shipping, Petroleum and Gas, Power, Telecom, Shipping, and Aviation.
  • Its goal is to ensure that infrastructure projects are planned and executed in a holistic manner.
  • Provided services include:
  • The portal will have 200 layers of geospatial data, including information on current infrastructure like as roads, highways, trains, and toll plazas, as well as geographic information on forests, rivers, and district boundaries to aid in planning and securing permissions.
  • The portal will also allow multiple government departments to watch the progress of various projects, particularly those with multi-sectoral and multi-regional implications, in real time and from a single location.
  • Significance:
  • “Each and every department now has sight of each other’s operations, delivering essential data while planning and executing projects in a complete manner,” the goal is to ensure.
  • Different departments will be able to prioritise their projects through cross-sectoral interactions as a result of this.”
  • With integrated planning and fewer implementation overlaps, it will help improve last-mile connection while lowering logistics costs.
  • A requirement for:
  • The water department dug up newly-built roadways to lay pipes, demonstrating poor infrastructure design. This has had a negative impact on the country’s road infrastructure and transportation.
  • In addition, logistics expenses in India are roughly 13-14 percent of GDP, compared to 7-8 percent in Western nations. High logistics costs have an impact on the economy’s cost structures, as well as making it more expensive for exporters to convey goods to customers.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Indian Agriculture

  • Context:
  • The Minimum Support Price (MSP) for Raw Jute for the 2022-23 season has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.
  • The clearance is based on the Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices’ recommendations.
  • The declared MSP for raw jute for the 2022-23 season follows the premise of setting the MSP at least 1.5 times the all-India weighted average cost of production, as announced by the government in the 2018-19 Budget.
  • It guarantees a profit margin of at least 50 percent.
  • It is an essential and progressive step toward providing higher remuneration for jute growers and incentivizing the production of high-quality jute fibre.
  • What exactly is MSP:
  • The minimum support price (MSP) is the price at which the government buys grains from farmers.
  • What method is used to calculate it:
  • The MSP is the rate at which the government purchases crops from farmers, and it is calculated at least one-and-a-half times the producers’ cost of production.
  • MSP would be maintained at 1.5 times the cost of production, according to the Union Budget for 2018-19.
  • The MSP is set twice a year, based on recommendations by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), a statutory agency that submits separate reports for the kharif and rabi seasons.
  • Which production costs are considered for determining MSPs:
  • When recommending MSP, the CACP considers both ‘A2+FL’ and ‘C2’ costs
  • A2 expenditures include all monetary and in-kind expenses incurred by farmers on seeds, fertilisers, chemicals, hired labour, fuel, and irrigation, among other things.
  • A2+FL accounts for actual out-of-pocket expenses as well as the value of unpaid family labour.
  • On top of A2+FL, the C2 expenses account for the rent and interest foregone on owned land and fixed capital assets, respectively.
  • MSP’s drawbacks include:
  • The main issue with the MSP is a lack of government procurement equipment for all products except wheat and rice, which are actively procured under the PDS by the Food Corporation of India.
  • Farmers in places where the grain is totally procured by the government benefit the most, while those in states where the grain is procured less are frequently affected.
  • The MSP-based procurement system is also reliant on middlemen, commission agents, and APMC officials, all of whom are difficult to reach for smaller farmers.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • Credit protection is bought and sold in this example of a credit derivative transaction.
  • In a Credit Default Swap (CDS), one party agrees to pay another party fixed payments on a regular basis in exchange for ‘credit event protection,’ in the form of a payment, if a third party or its obligations are subject to one or more pre-agreed adverse credit events over a pre-agreed time period.
  • Bankruptcy, failure to pay, obligation acceleration, restructuring, and repudiation/moratorium are all common credit occurrences.
  • Source – The Hindu