Current News Analysis of July 12th 2021


  1. The creation of a new Union Ministry to oversee the cooperatives sector will redeem it from negligence, according to the Government
  2. Cooperatives are dominant in agriculture,credit and marketing.In milk, cotton, handlooms, housing, edible oils, sugar and fisheries, they are formidable cooperatives in States such as Kerala have got into complex operations: running IT parks and medical colleges

3.The legal architecture of the sector began evolving since 1904 under colonial rule, and in 2002, the Multi State Cooperative Societies Act was passed, taking into account the challenges arising out of liberalisation

4.cooperatives fall in the State list of the Constitution, the Centre will have to innovate to provide legal sanctity for the new Ministry. Cooperatives are not meant to operate by the market logic of maximising profits but to share the benefits to all stakeholders equitably

5.cooperatives have made significant contributions in poverty alleviation, food security, management of natural resources and the environment. the sector has become an instrument of patronage and pilferage. Mismanagement and corruption destroyed the sector in some States. cooperatives are also effective in mediating politics at the local level, outside of the parliamentary system.


  1.  Silent segregation on the grounds of marital status, gender, sexual orientation or eating preferences are followed in several housing societies and residents’ associations

2. Article 15 (1) of the Constitution of India prohibits the state from discriminating against individuals on basis of certain protected characteristics such as religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth

  1. Supreme Court, in Patan Jamal Vali vs State of Andhra Pradesh, recognised intersectional discrimination — discrimination on the basis of the intersection of personal characteristics, such as that faced by Dalit women as Dalits, as women and in the unique category of Dalit women

4.The Sachar Committee, in 2006, recognised the need for  an anti­discrimination law. This was further reiterated by the Expert Group on Equal Opportunity Commission headed by Prof. N.R. Madhava Menon

  1. Anti Discrimination and Equality Bill,2016 lapsed in 2019/ the Lok Sabha
  2. The State legislature can use its powers under Entry 8 of List III in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution to enact an anti­discrimination law that attracts civil penalties for those who engage in discriminatory practices

7.the Bill establishes a ‘Kerala Equality Commission’ to adjudicate complaints and to provide policy recommendations to the State government.

8.Appointments to the Commission are left to the political process, with substantial weight age given to the largest parties in the State, both in the Treasury and Opposition benches, to ensure bipartisan buy­ in to the process

9.anti­ discrimination law is not a panacea for the problems of inequality and social prejudice that are deeply rooted in our society


1.UNDP report last year, and subsequently in a global study by The Lancet, India will stabilise its population 12 years earlier than expected. .Over 62% of India is aged between 15 and 59 years, and the median age of the population is less than 30 years.

2.According to the World Bank, public expenditure on education constituted 4.4% of GDP in 2019 and only 3.4% of GDP in 2020 India stands 62nd in terms of public expenditure per student, and fares badly in quality of education measures such as student ­teacher ratios

3.Restricted mobility due to lockdowns puts girls at risk of violence at home at the hands of caregivers or partners. Studies have established strong links between nutrition and cognitive scores among teenagers the demographic dividend contributed to growth in other countries, especially during East Asia’s economic miracle of 1965-­1990.


two-pillar plan to reform international taxation rules and ensure that multinational enterprises pay a fair share of tax wherever they operate.’

  1. Pillar One will ensure a fairer distribution of profits and taxing rights among countries with respect to the largest MNEs, including digital companies. It would re-allocate some taxing rights over MNEs from their home countries to the markets where they have business activities and earn profits, regardless of whether firms have a physical presence there.

Pillar Two seeks to put a floor on competition over corporate income tax, through the introduction of a global minimum corporate tax rate that countries can use to protect their tax bases.”