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10th December 2021

No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    About the Bird FluPrelims & Mains
2.    Details of the State Election CommissionPrelims & Mains
3.    What is InflationPrelims & Mains
4.    About the National Green TribunalPrelims & Mains
5.    Details of the Single Theatre CommandPrelims & Mains
6.    About the NSCN IMPrelims Specific




Topic – Health related issues

  • Why is it in the news:
  • In Kerala’s Kuttanad region, new cases of avian flu have been identified. Bird culling squads have been constituted in the affected areas.
  • The H5N1 influenza virus has been detected in samples.
  • What exactly is avian flu:
  • Avian influenza is another name for bird flu.
  • It’s a sickness caused by avian influenza Type A viruses, which can be found in wild birds all over the world.
  • Symptoms of influenza-like sickness have ranged from mild to severe.
  • current events
  • Classification:
  • Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase, two proteins found on the surfaces of avian influenza type A viruses, are used to classify them (NA).
  • There are approximately 18 HA and 11 NA subtypes.
  • H5N1, H7N2, H9N6, H17N10, and other combinations of these two proteins are feasible.
  • Spread:
  • Human infections with avian and swine influenza have been reported.
  • The infection is fatal, with a fatality rate of approximately 60%.
  • Direct touch is the most typical way for viruses to spread. If they come into touch with polluted surfaces or air near infected chickens, they may become infected as well.
  • Is it possible for the virus to spread to humans:
  • There have been no reported cases of H5N8 in humans.
  • The risk to the general public is quite low.
  • There is also no evidence that the virus may be transmitted to humans through the intake of poultry meat or eggs.
  • During control and containment efforts, however, adequate care must be taken when handling sick/dead birds and contaminated material.
  • Eating properly prepared poultry items is deemed safe.
  • Control measures include:
  • When an infection is found in animals, culling is frequntly done to control it.
  • Aside from culling, proper disposal of all culled animals and animal products is critical.
  • Authorities must also severely enforce cleanup of infected buildings and place contaminated vehicles and persons under quarantine.
  • Source – The Hindu – 10/12/21 – Page Number 5



Topic – Election related issues

  • The State Election Commission is comprised of the following individuals:
  • The State Election Commission, comprising of a State Election Commissioner, is charged with supervising, directing, and controlling the production of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of all elections to Panchayats and Municipalities under the Indian Constitution (Articles 243K, 243ZA).
  • Appointment of the State Election Commissioner:
  • The Governor appoints the State Election Commissioner.
  • In accordance with article 243(C3), the Governor shall make available to the State Election Commission such staff as may be required for the performance of the tasks entrusted to the SEC.
  • The ECI and SECs have identical mandates, but do they have the same powers:
  • Article 243K of the Constitution, which governs the establishment of SECs, is nearly identical to Article 324 of the Constitution, which governs the EC.
  • In other words, SECs have the same legal standing as the EC.
  • In the case of Kishan Singh Tomar vs Municipal Corporation of the City of Ahmedabad, the Supreme Court ruled that state governments must implement the directions of the SECs during panchayat and municipal elections, just as they do during Assembly and Parliament elections.
  • How far can the courts get involved:
  • Once the electoral process has begun, courts cannot intervene in the conduct of polls for local bodies and self-government entities.
  • Article 243-O of the Constitution prohibits the EC from interfering in polling matters initiated by the SECs, and Article 329 prohibits the EC from interfering in such cases initiated by the SECs.
  • Election petitions can only be filed after the polls have closed to challenge the SECs’ decisions or actions.
  • The powers that the SECs have are the same as those that the EC has.
  • Source – The Hindu – 10/12/21 – Page Number 4



Topic – Indian Economy related issues

  • Inflation:
  • Inflation is defined as an increase in the price of most everyday or common goods and services, such as food, clothing, housing, recreation, transportation, consumer staples, and so on.
  • Inflation is defined as the average change in the price of a basket of goods and services over time.
  • Inflation is defined as a drop in the purchasing power of a country’s currency unit. This could eventually result in a slowdown in economic growth.
  • However, to ensure that output is supported, the economy requires a moderate amount of inflation.
  • In India, the National Statistics Office (NSO), which is part of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, monitors inflation.
  • In India, two key indices, the WPI (Wholesale Price Index) and the CPI (Consumer Price Index), are used to assess wholesale and retail price fluctuations, respectively.
  • What is CPI:
  • CPI stands for Consumer Price Index.
  • It tracks price fluctuations from the standpoint of a consumer.
  • The CPI measures the price differential between goods and services purchased by Indian consumers, such as food, medical care, education, and gadgets.
  • Food and beverages, fuel and light, housing and clothing, bedding and footwear are all part of the CPI.
  • The following are the four types of CPI:
  • Industrial Workers’ CPI (IW).
  • Agricultural Labourer CPI (AL).
  • CPI for Agricultural Laborers (RL).
  • CPI (Rural/Urban/Combined) is a measure of how rural/urban/combined an area is.
  • The first three are compiled by the Ministry of Labour and Employment’s Labour Bureau.
  • The National Statistical Office (NSO) of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation compiles the fourth.
  • The CPI’s base year is 2012.
  • CPI data is used by the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) to keep inflation under control.
  • Source – The Hindu – 10/12/21 – Page Number 12



Topic – Environmental Conservation related issues

  • NGT’s Background:
  • The National Green Tribunal was established on October 18, 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010.
  • Established for the effective and timely resolution of matters involving environmental protection and forest and other natural resource conservation.
  • The Tribunal’s Principal Place of Sitting will be New Delhi, and the other four places of sitting would be Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata, and Chennai.
  • The Tribunal is not limited by the procedure set down in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but is instead influenced by natural justice principles.
  • The NGT is required to issue a final decision on petitions or appeals within six months of their submission.
  • India became the third country in the world, after Australia and New Zealand, to establish a specialised environmental tribunal, and the first developing country to do so with the founding of the NGT.
  • Composition:
  • The act provides for up to 40 members to be sanctioned (20 expert members and 20 judicial members).
  • Chairman: Is the tribunal’s administrative head, as well as a judicial member, and must be a serving or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or a Supreme Court of India judge.
  • Appointment:
  • A screening committee (led by a sitting judge of the Supreme Court of India) analyses applications and conducts interviews to choose members.
  • Applicants who are serving or retired judges of High Courts are chosen as judicial members.
  • Expert members are chosen from among applicants who are either serving or retired bureaucrats with a minimum of five years of administrative experience dealing with environmental issues and who are not below the rank of Additional Secretary to the Government of India (not below the rank of Principal Secretary if serving under a state government). Alternatively, the experts must hold a doctorate in a related discipline.
  • Source – The Hindu – 10/12/21 – Page Number 4



Topic – Internal Security of India & Security Forces

  • What is meant by “integrated theatre commands”:
  • An integrated theatre command envisions a unified leadership of the three Services, led by a single commander, for strategic and security-sensitive geographic locations.
  • The commander of such a force will be able to effectively manage all of the resources at his disposal, including the Army, Indian Air Force, and Navy.
  • Individual Services will not be accountable to the consolidated theatre commander.
  • Why is India looking for a unified theatre command:
  • This will improve planning and military response while also lowering costs.
  • While the cost may increase in the short term because all theatres will need to be equipped with adequate technology, it will be more cost-effective in the long run because all acquisitions would be coordinated.
  • It will provide a cohesive approach to future warfighting.
  • Proposals in this regard include the following:
  • The requirement for a united approach to warfighting was highlighted in the aftermath of the Kargil combat in 1999.
  • In addition to the Naresh Chandra Committee, the Kargil Review Committee and the then Group of Ministers had recommended for structural changes in higher defence management.
  • The Shekatkar committee, chaired by Lt Gen. (retd) D.B. Shekatkar, advocated the formation of the CDS post and theatre commands.
  • Source – The Hindu – 10/12/21 – Page Number 6


Prelims Specific Topic

  • NSCN’s Background:
  • Isak Chisi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah, and S.S. Khaplang founded the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) on January 31, 1980, in opposition to the ‘Shillong Accord’ signed by the then NNC (Naga National Council) with the Indian government.
  • The group wants to create a ‘Greater Nagaland,’ and its ideology is founded on the socialist idea of economic development and a spiritual outlook – ‘Nagaland for Christ.’
  • NSCN (K), led by S. S. Khaplang, and NSCN (I-M), led by Isak Chishi Swu and Thuingaleng Muivah, are two prominent NSCN factions.
  • Extortion, bank robberies, and other criminal pursuits are said to be a key source of income for the NSCN-IM, which also engages in extortion, robberies, and other illegal chases to get funds. In addition, the organisation raises finances through mobilising international support.
  • Why was NSCN established:
  • The NSCN was founded with the goal of establishing a sovereign Christian state called “Nagalim,” which would encompass all Naga-populated areas in Northeast India and Northwest Myanmar.
  • When did the NSCN get started:
  • Isak Chisi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah, and S.S. Khaplang founded the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) on January 31, 1980.
  • Source – The Hindu – 10/12/21 – Page Number 1


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