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27th December 2021

 No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
4.    WHAT IS  G-SECS Prelims Specific




Topic – Poverty related issues

  • About National Multi-dimensional Poverty Index:
  • This baseline report of India’s first-ever national MPI measure is based on the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)- 4 reference period of 2015-16.
  • It is based on the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) approach, which is widely regarded and reliable (UNDP).
  • It captures the many and concurrent deprivations that households confront.
  • The parameters that were utilised:
  • Nutrition, child and adolescent mortality, antenatal care, years of schooling, school attendance, cooking fuel, sanitation, drinking water, electricity, housing, assets, and bank account are among the 12 indicators that make up the NMPI. They are grouped into three dimensions: health, education, and standard of living.
  • What is the significance of NFHS-4:
  • The data obtained during the NFHS-4 (2015-2016) relates to the period before new governments’ flagship programmes were fully implemented.
  • As a result, it is a good tool for assessing the situation at the outset, i.e. before large-scale implementation of nationally significant programs.
  • What is the purpose of the data?
  • The national MPI 2021 is derived from home microdata obtained at the unit level for the NFHS-4, which is used to generate the baseline multidimensional poverty index.
  • Furthermore, the NFHS-5 baseline would be used to assess the country’s progress, with data collected between 2019 and 2020.
  • The NFHS-5 data obtained in 2019-20 will be used to assess the country’s development against this baseline.
  • Highlights of the National MPI Index:
  • Bihar has the highest poverty rate at 51.91 percent, followed by Jharkhand (42.16 percent), Uttar Pradesh (37.79 percent), Madhya Pradesh (36.65 percent), and Meghalaya (36.65 percent) (32.67 percent ).
  • Kerala, on the other hand, has the lowest population poverty rate (0.71%), followed by Puducherry (1.72%), Lakshadweep (1.82%), Goa (3.76%), and Sikkim (3.76%). (3.82 percent ).
  • Tamil Nadu (4.89 percent), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (4.30 percent), Delhi (4.79 percent), Punjab (5.59 percent), Himachal Pradesh (7.62 percent), and Mizoram are among the States and UTs where less than 10% of the population is poor (9.8 percent ).
  • Source – The Hindu – 27/12/21 – Page Number 4



Topic – Indian Economy

  • What is Dumping:
  • Dumping occurs when a country exports commodities to another country at a cheaper price than it charges in its own domestic market.
  • This is a deceptive trade activity that has the potential to distort international trade.
  • Objective:
  • The imposition of anti-dumping duties is a response to the situation created by the dumping of products and the resulting trade distortion.
  • Anti-dumping tariffs can restrict the international rivalry of domestic enterprises producing similar items in the long run.
  • It’s a levy imposed by a domestic government on foreign imports that it deems are priced below fair market value.
  • The World Trade Organisation allows anti-dumping measures to be used as a tool for fair competition.
  • Countervailing Duties are not the same as Antidumping Duties.
  • Countervailing duty is a customs duty on goods that have received government subsidies in the originating or exporting country, whereas ADD is a customs duty on goods that have received government subsidies in the originating or exporting country.
  • Anti-dumping Duty Provisions at the WTO:
  • Anti-dumping duties are valid for five years from the date of imposition unless they are removed sooner.
  • Sunset Review:
  • Through a sunset or expiry review examination, it can be prolonged for another five years.
  • A sunset review, also known as an expiry review, assesses the need for a program or agency to continue to operate. It provides for an evaluation of the program’s or agency’s effectiveness and performance.
  • A review of this nature can be initiated on its own or in response to a properly documented request from or on behalf of the domestic industry.
  • Source – The Hindu – 27/12/21 – Page Number 10



Topic – International Relations

  • What is the Apartheid Policy:
  • The European commerce firms occupied South Africa in the seventeenth and eighteenth century.
  • As a result, Apartheid was the label given to a system of racial oppression enforced by white European rulers on South Africa.
  • Apartheid policies included:
  • A system of apartheid segregated people and labelled them according on their skin colour.
  • Non-whites had no voting privileges.
  • Non-whites were considered as second-class citizens by the white overlords. Non-whites were denied the right to vote.
  • apartheid system was particularly repressive for black people.
  • They were not allowed to live in white regions. They were only allowed to labor in white zones if they got a permission.
  • Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theaters, beaches, swimming pools, and public restrooms were all segregated.
  • They were not allowed to go to the churches where white people worshipped.
  • Protests and the establishment of associations were prohibited, and blacks were unable to form organizations or demonstrate against the terrible discrimination they faced.
  • This hampered their ability to peacefully oppose apartheid.
  • India had a significant role to play in the abolition of Apartheid System:
  • Soon after taking power, Nehru proclaimed that India’s strategy would be to abolish colonialism in Asia, Africa, and abroad, as well as racial equality and the elimination of one nation’s dominance or exploitation by another.
  • Gandhi’s Influence:
  • Gandhi’s political actions were mostly focused on the Indian population, notwithstanding his deep esteem and sympathy for Africans.
  • As a result, his effect on the South African independence struggle was mostly by example.
  • Even if indirect, his impact on the history of the South African fight was everlasting, as great leaders such as Nelson Mandela recognized.
  • The role of the Indian diaspora:
  • During WWII, the relationship between India’s and South Africa’s national movements grew even deeper.
  • They recognized that their fate was tied to that of the African majority, and they increasingly participated in combined campaigns against racist laws, thanks to the encouragement of the Indian national movement.
  • Because of significant popular emotion in the country, India filed a protest with the United Nations in 1946 against racial discrimination in South Africa, even before the country had established a national government.
  • In important international organizations, India had spoken out against apartheid:
  • India was a co-sponsor of the 1962 United Nations General Assembly resolution encouraging other countries to impose sanctions on South Africa and established the Special Committee against Apartheid.
  • Source – The Hindu – 27/12/21 – Page Number 1


Prelims Specific Topic:

  • What are Government Securities:
  • A government security (G-Sec) is a tradable instrument issued by the federal government or individual states.
  • It recognizes the government’s financial commitments.
  • Short-term securities (treasury bills with original maturities of less than one year) and long-term securities (government bonds or dated securities with original maturities of one year or more) are examples.
  • Treasury bills and bonds, often known as dated securities, are both issued by the federal government.
  • State governments only issue state development loans, which are bonds or dated securities.
  • They are known as risk-free gilt-edged instruments because they are issued by the government and bear no danger of default.
  • FPIs are authorized to trade in G-Secs as long as they stay within the quantitative limits that are set from time to time.
  • What causes G-secs to be so volatile:
  • In the secondary markets, G- Sec prices change a lot. Factors that influence their prices include:
  • The securities’ supply and demand.
  • Interest rate changes in the economy, as well as other macroeconomic elements like liquidity and inflation.
  • Other market developments, such as money, foreign exchange, credit, and capital markets.
  • International bond market developments, particularly in the US Treasury market.
  • Changes in repo rates, cash reserve ratios, and open-market operations are examples of RBI policy activities.
  • Source – The Hindu – 27/12/21 – Page Number 12


Prelims Specific Topic:

  • About the Greater One-Horned Rhino:
  • The Greater One-Horned Rhino is one of five Rhino species.
  • The other four are as follows:
  • The black rhinoceros is the smaller of the two African rhino species.
  • White Rhino: Using the in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure, researchers have generated an embryo of a northern white rhino.
  • The IUCN Red List classifies the Javan Rhino as critically endangered.
  • In Malaysia, the Sumatran Rhinoceros has recently become extinct.
  • Greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan, and Sumatran rhinos are the three species found in Asia.
  • In India, only the Great One-Horned Rhino may be found.
  • It is the largest rhino species and is also known as the Indian rhino.
  • A single black horn and a grey-brown hide with skin creases distinguish it.
  • Habitat:
  • They mostly graze, and their diet consists nearly completely of grasses, as well as leaves, shrub and tree branches, fruit, and aquatic plants.
  • Small habitats in the Indo-Nepal terai, northern West Bengal, and Assam are home to the species.
  • Rhinos are mostly found in Assam, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh in India.
  • Pabitora Wildlife Reserve, Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, Kaziranga National Park, and Manas National Park in Assam are home to an estimated 2,640 rhinos.
  • The Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve has about 2,400 of them (KNPTR)
  • Status of Protection:
  • Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
  • CITES Appendix I: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial, for instance for scientific research).
  • Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.
  • Source – The Hindu – 27/12/21 – Page Number 5

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