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30th December 2021

 No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About the Aryan Invasion Prelims & Mains
2.    Details of the Genome Sequencing Prelims & Mains
3.    Details of the Indigneous Defence Manufacturing Prelims & Mains
4.    About the Atal Innovation Index Prelims Specific
5.    What is INSACOG Prelims Specific




Topic – Indian Culture

  • About the Aryan Invasion Theory:
  • Aryan Invasion Theory is a theory that claims that the Aryans invaded Europe
  • Max Muller was the first to propose AIT.
  • According to this account, the Indo-Aryans moved into India rather than invading it, but the indigenous peoples were nonetheless subjugated and had Indo-Aryan religion (Hinduism) and culture imposed on them.
  • It has so far served as the foundation upon which Indian history has been written. Its central thesis is made up of three parts:
  • The Harappan or Indus Valley Culture, which flourished in western India and present-day Pakistan, was founded by “dark-skinned” Dravidians who constructed a peaceful, highly developed urban civilization known as the Harappan or Indus Valley Civilization (IVC).
  • Around 1500 BCE, a nomadic race known as the Indo-Aryans invaded and subjugated India from the west. Central Asia, Scandinavia, North Germany, Hungary, and Ukraine were all cited as possible homelands for these ‘Aryans’ / Indo-Europeans.
  • They annihilated the ancient Dravidian civilisation, oppressed the locals, and forced them to migrate to the south of India.
  • The Indo-Aryans were white-skinned people who spoke Vedic Sanskrit and wrote the Vedas, as well as imposing Indo-Aryan religion (Hinduism) and civilization.
  • Source – The Hindu – 30/12/21 – Page Number 10



Topic – Biotechnology related issues

  • About the Genome Sequencing:
  • The process of understanding the exact arrangement of base pairs in a person’s genome is known as genome sequencing.
  • Sequencing is concerned with “deciphering” or “reading” the genome.
  • The cost of sequencing varies depending on the methods used to read the genome and the level of precision required.
  • Genome sequencing is required because:
  • Since the human genome was initially sequenced in 2003, it has provided new insight into the relationship between disease and an individual’s genetic make-up.
  • A single gene failure is thought to cause around 10,000 illnesses, including cystic fibrosis and thalassemia.
  • While genes may make some people resistant to certain medications, genome sequencing has revealed that cancer, rather than being viewed as a disease of specific organs, may be understood through the lens of genetics.
  • Source – The Hindu – 30/12/21 – Page Number 3



Topic – Infrastructure related issues

  • Why Indigenization of Defence is required:
  • For self-sufficiency
  • To reduce reliance on foreign players while ensuring national security
  • To save or reduce the deficit in the Balance of Payments
  • Promote job creation as well as exports
  • To minimize India’s cost of production and, as a result, the budget deficit. India became the world’s third-largest defence spender in 2019, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
  • Challenges:
  • Défense Deficit India’s manufacturing base
  • Government ordnance factories and a lack of private participation are the primary drivers.
  • When contemplating the Indian route, the public sector (DPSUs/OFs) has by far been the preferred classification, particularly for large ticket purchases, despite its dismal track record in terms of time and cost overruns, inefficiencies, and poor financial performance.
  • Because the defence sector is a capital-intensive enterprise with substantial investment risks, there are few private companies in the arena.
  • By involving industry and Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises, DPSUs, on the other hand, have done little to encourage proficient business practices (MSMEs).
  • The 33rd Standing Committee on Defence report, Indigenization of Défense Production: Public- Private Partnership, slammed the government’s efforts to encourage indigenization.
  • Expensive and time-consuming, as well as a shaky market
  • Inadequate technological transfer by foreign firms
  • Insufficient data
  • Assessment of Degree of Indigenization:
  • There is currently no scientific method in place to analyse the extent/level of indigenization accomplished by the country’s defence manufacturing companies.
  • In fact, statistical data on the extent of indigenisation accessible in the open domain does not accurately reflect the true picture because some of the data does not include the amount of import content used in DPSU/OF products.
  • Bureaucratic delays and license issues:
  • Doing business in the defence industry is still difficult. Compliance with the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion’s licensing standards is required for investment in the defence sector (DIPP)
  • Measures taken so far:
  • Foreign direct investment (FDI) surged by 74%.
  • Strategic collaboration model
  • Procurement policy for defence and the New Défense Acquisition Procedure
  • A restriction on 101 defence products from entering the country
  • Institutional reforms such as the Défense Acquisition Council to combat corruption and the Chief of Defence Staff to bring defence needs into harmony, as well as the Defence Planning Committee and other committees that can review purchase proposals.
  • Défense Innovation Hubs and Défense Industrial Corridors to connect defence investment zones
  • The 2020 Défense Acquisition Procedure
  • Source – The Hindu – 30/12/21 – Page Number 12



Topic – Federalism and Innovation in India

About the Atal Innovation Index:

  • The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) of the Government of India is introducing the ‘Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) to systematically rank education institutions and universities primarily on innovation related indicators in order to ensure that innovation is the primary fulcrum of all HEIs.
  • Higher Educational Institutions will benefit from ARIIA’s robust competition.
  • To rank the most creative education institutions/universities in the globe, ARIIA takes into account all main indices that are regularly utilized around the world.
  • ARIIA will focus on the quality of innovations rather than their quantity, and will attempt to quantify the true impact of these breakthroughs both nationally and internationally.
  • ARIIA parameters to be focused on:
  • Expenses and revenue generated by innovation and entrepreneurship development in the budget.
  • Facilitating access to advanced centres and facilities, as well as a support system for entrepreneurs.
  • Its importance:
  • Entrepreneurship begins with an idea.
  • Ecosystems of Innovation Development Teaching and learning provide support.
  • The most creative solutions Developed in-house to improve your institution’s governance.
  • ARIIA’s purpose is to motivate Indian institutions to change their mindsets and create environments that promote high-quality research, innovation, and entrepreneurship.
  • Set the tone and direction for institutions’ future development in order to make them more globally competitive and innovative.
  • Source – The Hindu – 30/12/21 – Page Number 12


Prelims Specific Topic:

  • About the Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genomics Consortium (INSACOG):
  • The Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genomics Consortium (INSACOG) is a collaboration between the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
  • It’s a group of 28 national laboratories working together to track SARS-CoV-2 genetic changes.
  • It conducts full genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 virus across the country to aid in the understanding of the virus’s distribution and evolution.
  • INSACOG also seeks to focus on sequencing of clinical samples to understand the illness dynamics and severity.
  • Source – The Hindu – 30/12/21 – Page Number 12

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