04th December 2021

 No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    What are Sessions Court Prelims & Mains
2.    Disinvestment in Air India Prelims & Mains
3.    About the RFID Technology Prelims & Mains
4.    What is ‘Lesser Florican’ Species Prelims & Mains
5.    About the Corporate Social Responsibility Prelims & Mains
6.    About the State Human Rights Commission Prelims Specific
7.    Details of the Chocolate Bordered Flitters Prelims Specific




Topic – Indian Judiciary

  • Appointment of a District Judge:
  • The district judge is also known as a “Metropolitan session judge” while presiding over a district court in a city designated by the State Government as a “Metropolitan region.”
  • The district court has appellate authority over all subordinate courts in the district in both civil and criminal proceedings.
  • The district and sessions judge is referred to as “district judge” when sitting over civil issues, and “sessions judge” when presiding over criminal affairs.
  • The Governor of the State selects district judges, as well as the posting and promotion of district judges, in coordination with the High Court holding authority over the State.
  • A person who is not already employed by the Union or the State can only be appointed a district judge if he has worked as an advocate or a pleader for at least seven years and has been nominated for appointment by the High Court, according to Article 233 (2).
  • Members of the Bar should be considered for appointments at all three levels, i.e., district judges, high courts, and the Supreme Court, as envisioned by the Constitution’s writers.
  • This is because lawyers who work in the courts have direct contact with the people who need their services, and their perspectives on how the courts run are always evolving.
  • The Supreme Court has ruled that the only method to become a District Judge is to be promoted in accordance with Article 234 Rules, and that subordinate judicial officers, even if they have seven years of experience as an advocate, cannot apply or compete for direct appointment as District Judges.
  • The Supreme Court stated that direct appointment is only available to advocates or pleaders with seven years of legal expertise when interpreting Article 233.
  • According to the new order, “members of the judicial service who have seven years of practise experience before joining the service or who have seven years of combined experience as both a lawyer and a judicial officer are not entitled to apply for direct recruitment as a District Judge.”
  • The court decided that the restriction on judicial officials seeking District Judgeships through direct recruitment imposed by Article 233(2) is not extra-territoriality nor a breach of their fundamental rights to equality and equal opportunities in public employment.
  • In addition, judicial authorities nominated directly under Article 233 are no longer allowed to serve as District Judges, according to the judgement.
  • They would be recalled to their prior postings if they were superseded by their juniors, and the various High Courts would examine their promotion in accordance with the current Rules.
  • To be qualified under Article 233, an advocate must have been in practise for seven years as of the cut-off date and at the time of appointment as a District Judge, according to the court.
  • Source – The Hindu – 04/12/21 – Page Number 2



Topic – Indian Economy

  • Why is it making headlines:
  • The government of India has approved Talace Pvt Ltd, a fully owned subsidiary of Tata Sons Pvt. Ltd, to sell (disinvest) the government of India’s 100 percent equity holding in Air India for the highest price bid (AI).
  • The Tatas will own 100% of AI, as well as 100% of Air India Express, its foreign low-cost affiliate, and 50% of AI SATS, a ground handling joint venture.
  • Reasons for Disinvestment:
  • It is expected that as AI enters the commercial sector, operations and expenses will be cut, on-board services will improve, and basic amenities such as wi-fi will be made available.
  • A strong international carrier in India will help to stimulate the massive airports being developed in Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, and Bengaluru, which, in combination with AI, will be able to recuperate some of the tourist dollars currently spent on foreign carriers by Indians travelling abroad.
  • Because aviation has a multiplier effect on the economy, a successful revival of Air India might help the Indian economy as well.
  • The government is under pressure to raise resources in order to aid the economy’s recovery and meet rising healthcare spending demands.
  • Importance: It will save money for taxpayers by avoiding the need to pay for AI losses on a recurring basis.
  • It will help the administration make more difficult decisions in the future.
  • It may make it possible to fly another low-cost carrier within India.
  • Disinvestment means:
  • Disinvestment is the sale or liquidation of assets by the government, usually public sector enterprises, projects, or other fixed assets.
  • The government engages in disinvestment to reduce its fiscal burden or to raise funds for specific goals, such as bridging revenue gaps from other sources.
  • Strategic disinvestment is the process of transferring ownership and control of a public sector firm to another entity (mostly to a private sector entity).
  • Unlike simple disinvestment, strategic selling is a sort of privatisation.
  • According to the disinvestment commission, a strategic sale is defined as the sale of a significant portion of the government’s shareholding in a central public sector enterprise (CPSE) of up to 50%, or such higher percentage as the competent authority may determine, along with the transfer of management control.
  • The Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM) of the Ministry of Finance is in charge of strategic stake sales in Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs).
  • Strategic disinvestment in India has been driven by the underlying economic premise that the government should not be in the business of manufacturing/producing items and services in industries where competitive marketplaces have evolved.
  • The economic potential of such enterprises may be better identified in the hands of strategic investors for a variety of reasons, including infusions of capital, technological advancements, and efficient management approaches.
  • Source – The Hindu – 04/12/21 – Page Number 1



Topic – Technological Interventions

  • The term RFID refers to a method of encoding digital data in RFID tags or smart labels that may be read by a reader.
  • In the same way that a device captures data from a tag, it’s similar to barcoding.
  • RFID is a type of technology that also incorporates automatic data collecting and identification.
  • Such technology recognises objects, collects data about them, and feeds it directly into the computer with little or no human involvement.
  • Components of an RFID system:
  • The three components are an RFID tag or label, a reader, and an antenna.
  • To convey data to the reader, the tag has a circuit and an antenna integrated in.
  • The reader then converts the waves that have been sent into a usable type of data.
  • The data is subsequently transferred to a host computer system, where it can be analysed and stored.
  • RFID Technology’s Applications:
  • Logistics and supply chain – RFID technology is utilised in supply chains and logistics. By giving visibility, RFID can help enhance efficiency, reduce errors, and improve quality in the supply chain.
  • Inventory tracking – Tracing items through the supply chain to the point of scale can be done in minutes with the help of an RFID reader.
  • Attendee tracking — Managing a conference with an RFID-based system can help avoid the need for long registration lines.
  • RFID-based access – Some locations require a higher level of security. RFID control tag access might be limited to those who have been pre-approved.
  • Real-time location system – With this system, you can track the position of employees and assets in real time. It assists with the evaluation of a floor-based strategy as well as resource tracking.
  • Source – The Hindu – 04/12/21 – Page Number 2



Topic – Environmental Conservation related issues

  • In a significant discovery, the longest in-country migration route of lesser floricans, endangered bustards, was tracked for the first time from Rajasthan to Maharashtra’s Ahmednagar region.
  • They are described as follows:
  • The bustard’s smallest member is the Lesser Floricans (Sypheotides indicus), often known as the likh or kharmore.
  • It’s unique to the Indian Subcontinent, where it lives in tall grasses, and the males are famous for their monsoon-season leaping breeding displays.
  • The male has contrasting black and white breeding plumage, as well as long head feathers that reach behind the neck.
  • These bustards are typically found in northwestern and central India during the summer, but they are more widely distributed throughout India during the winter.
  • The only other species that comes close is the Bengal florican (Houbarobsis bengalensis), which is larger and lacks the white throat, collar, and expanded plumes.
  • The conservation status of the Lesser Florican is:
  • The Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 lists the Lesser Florican on Schedule 1.
  • The bird is listed as “Critically Endangered” on the Red List of Threatened Species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  • Threats:
  • This species is threatened by both hunting and habitat degradation.
  • The species is critically endangered, and certain parts of its range have been officially hunted to extinction, such as Pakistan.
  • Source – The Hindu – 04/12/21 – Page Number 7



Topic – Indian Economy

  • “Corporate Social Responsibility” can be defined as a corporate endeavour to assess and accept responsibility for the company’s environmental and social welfare consequences in general.
  • In India, the concept of CSR is governed by Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • India is the first government in the world to create a framework for identifying feasible CSR programmes as well as a CSR spending obligation.
  • The Act’s CSR standards apply to companies with an annual turnover of Rs. 1,000 crore or more, a net worth of Rs. 500 crore or more, or a net profit of Rs. 5 crore or more.
  • Businesses must organise a CSR committee that will recommend a Corporate Social Responsibility Policy to the Board of Directors and monitor it on a regular basis, according to the Act.
  • Under the Act, businesses are encouraged to spend 2% of their average net profit over the previous three years on CSR efforts.
  • The activities that a firm can engage in as part of its CSR programme are listed in Schedule VII of the Act.
  • The activities include eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, promoting education, gender equality, and women’s empowerment, combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and contributing to the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund or any other Central Government fund established for socio-economic development and relief, as well as funds for the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes.
  • Source – The Hindu – 04/12/21 – Page Number 10



Topic – Statutory & Non-Statutory Bodies

  • Introduction:
  • It will investigate abuses of human rights in the areas listed on the state and concurrent lists.
  • The SHRC will not investigate if the NHRC or another statutory panel has already done so.
  • The NHRC’s aims and responsibilities remain the same.
  • Composition:
  • It is made up of two members and a chairperson.
  • A serving or retired judge of the HC or a district judge with 7 years of experience, as well as someone with expertise or practical experience in the field of human rights, shall be included among the members.
  • The Chairperson and members of the SHRC are appointed by the Governor based on the recommendations of a committee that includes
  • Canada’s Prime Minister (chairperson)
  • Ministry of the Interior Minister
  • The Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Council
  • The Leader of the Opposition in the legislative assembly
  • Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
  • Chairman of the Legislative Council
  • Appointment:
  • Only the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court can appoint a sitting HC judge or a sitting district judge.
  • After leaving office, members are ineligible for any federal or state government appointment.
  • Members who meet specified age restrictions are eligible for reappointment.
  • The term has a duration of 70 years or 5 years.
  • Removal:
  • Bankruptcy, unsound mind, disease of the body or mind, being sentenced to prison for a crime, or working for a living are all grounds for the president’s dismissal.
  • He could be fired if a SC investigation deems him guilty of misbehaviour or incapacity. They can resign by writing a letter to the governor.
  • Powers:
  • If a case is submitted within one year of the incident, the commission has the same authority as a civil court and can hear it.
  • It has the authority to recommend victim reparations and criminal charges against the accused. Such proposals, however, are not legally binding.
  • It gives state legislatures special or annual reports documenting the measures performed in response to its recommendations, as well as the reasons for declining to accept advice.
  • Source – The Hindu – 04/12/21 – Page Number 6


Prelims Specific Topic

  • In Sikkim, a new butterfly species has been discovered.
  • Its closest cousins can be found around Hong Kong in south-eastern China.
  • It’s also known as Zographetus dzonguensis, after the Dzongu town in north Sikkim where it was first identified.
  • Source – The Hindu – 04/12/21 – Page Number 12