06th December 2021

No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    What is Naga Insurgency Prelims & Mains
2.    Details of the Rice Cultivation in India Prelims & Mains
3.    Details of India’s First Privately Built Cryogenic Engine Prelims & Mains
4.    What is Hypersonic Technology Prelims & Mains
5.    What are Booster Doses Prelims & Mains
6.    About the Jawad Cyclone Prelims Specific
7.    About the Mount Semeru of Indonesia Prelims Specific




Topic – Internal Security related topics

  • What is the Naga Peace Process and what is it about:
  • The Indian government has been in talks with Naga rebel factions, especially the NSCN(IM), since 1997 in the hopes of establishing a Naga Peace Accord.
  • One of the country’s oldest insurgencies is the Naga insurgency, which is founded in Naga nationalism.
  • The Naga-populated lands of the Northeast were never considered part of British India, and on August 14, 1947, the Naga National Council (NNC) declared Nagaland independent.
  • It set up an underground government (NFG) and an army in 1952, causing the Centre to dispatch the army and enact the Armed Forces (Special) Powers Act, or AFSPA.
  • Shillong Agreement:
  • In 1976, the Shillong Accord was reached with Nagaland’s underground factions after years of discussions.
  • Many prominent NNC officials, on the other hand, vehemently opposed it, arguing that it ignored Naga sovereignty and forced Nagas to adopt the Indian Constitution.
  • Since then, the Naga organisations have fragmented into several groups.
  • The Peace Treaty:
  • There have been about 100 rounds of negotiations.
  • In August 2015, the NGO and the Indian government signed a framework agreement for the Naga Peace Accord.
  • What went wrong, and what caused it:
  • Even the accord’s various competencies had been agreed upon, according to sources, albeit a few stumbling blocks remained.
  • The factions were adamant about having a Naga constitution and pushing for a Greater Nagalim that would extend beyond Nagaland’s current borders.
  • A separate flag and constitution were firmly rejected by the state council, which warned that “any misadventure to split our wonderful nation shall not be permitted.”
  • What are the most important issues in the midst of it all:
  • Because of the fervour with which the framework agreement was published, excessive expectations of a rapid conclusion arose.
  • The administration would not approve a separate constitution for Nagaland. This was never a topic of controversy in the first place.
  • There was general agreement that the flag should be presented.
  • That option was no longer available when the Kashmiri flag was withdrawn on August 5, 2019.
  • The most efficient way ahead is to:
  • It is vital to recognise that without the participation of violent organisations, no deal can be reached.
  • A bicameral Assembly with at least 40 nominated members representing various tribes is one demand; another is that cadres be integrated into local armed forces or the Indian paramilitary.
  • It is important to form autonomous councils in Naga-dominated areas of neighbouring states, as well as to use the Naga flag for at least customary events.
  • Source – The Hindu – 06/12/21 – Page Number 8



Topic – Indian Agriculture

  • The required temperature is between 22 and 32 degrees Celsius, with a high level of humidity.
  • Rainfall is variable, ranging from 150 to 300 cm.
  • Soil type: Loamy, clayey soil with a lot of clay.
  • West Bengal > Punjab > Uttar Pradesh > Andhra Pradesh > Bihar are the top rice-producing states in the country.
  • It is the primary food crop for the vast majority of Indians.
  • In states like Assam, West Bengal, and Odisha, paddy is cultivated three times a year. Their names are Aus, Aman, and Boro.
  • Among the Major Rice Producing Countries à India is the world’s second-largest rice producer after China.
  • Initiatives of the Government Include à The National Food Security Mission, Hybrid Rice Seed Production, and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana are some of the government’s rice-growing projects.
  • Source – The Hindu – 06/12/21 – Page Number 5



Topic – Scientific Interventions related issues

  • Context:
  • Skyroot Aerospace’s Vikram-2 launch vehicle’s upper stage was displayed.
  • The cryogenic rocket engine is totally 3D printed and built in India.
  • It was named after Satish Dhawan, the Indian Space Research Organization’s third chief (ISRO). In India’s development of better launch capabilities, he was a pioneer.
  • Regarding Rocket Vikram:
  • The Vikram Rocket is named after Indian space pioneer Vikram Sarabhai, who was instrumental in launching the country’s ambitious space programme.
  • In addition, he worked on cutting-edge nuclear research.
  • The rocket is propelled by a mixture of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), which contains more than 90% methane. Liquid Natural Gas and Liquid Oxygen are combined in this application.
  • In its combined form, it’s known as “Methalox,” and it’s used as a cryogenic rocket fuel.
  • The combination produces exceptional performance at a minimal cost. The fuel is environmentally friendly.
  • As a result, Skyroot Aerospace engineers have coined the term “Fuel of the Future” to describe this fuel.
  • The Dhawan-1 Engine is comprised of the following components:
  • The Dhawan-1 engine has a vacuum thrust of about 1.5kN.
  • The engine was put to the test on a specially built testbed at Solar Industries in Nagpur.
  • The engine is part of the top stage of the Vikram-2 launch vehicle.
  • It runs on LNG and LOX, both of which are environmentally friendly fuels.
  • It’s entirely made of 3D printed parts. The engine has been named after Satish Dhawan.
  • About the Pixxel 1 Satellite:
  • The Pixxel 1 satellite will be launched in 2022.
  • It will be the first private satellite in an Earth-observation constellation in low-Earth orbit.
  • Source – The Hindu – 06/12/21 – Page Number 8



Topic – Scientific Interventions related issues

  • Context:
  • According to the US, China’s pursuit of hypersonic weapons “increases tensions in the region,” and the US has committed to preserve its capabilities to counter any Chinese threats.
  • What is the specific issue:
  • China’s growing military might and determination to dethrone American dominance in Asia concern the United States.
  • The July test of a hypersonic missile capable of partially circumnavigating the Earth before reentering the atmosphere and gliding on a customised path to its target demonstrated China’s desire to advance its military capabilities.
  • Concerns that are related:
  • Experts say the weapons system is clearly designed to dodge US missile defences, despite China’s assertion that it was testing a reusable space vehicle rather than a missile.
  • What does travelling at hypersonic speeds mean for a weapon:
  • Hypersonic speeds are those that exceed the speed of sound by five times or more.
  • recent occurrences
  • Concerns and ramifications for India and the rest of the world include the following:
  • The weapon could theoretically fly over the South Pole. This would be a huge problem because the US military’s missile defence systems are directed at the northern polar route.
  • India is particularly concerned about recent developments because of its history with China.
  • Such capabilities highlight the dangers that our space assets, as well as our terrestrial assets, are exposed to.
  • China has employed the following technology:
  • China’s exact technology used in this particular test is unknown, according to media reports. The bulk of hypersonic vehicles, on the other hand, utilise scramjet technology.
  • How does scramjet technology function and what is it:
  • Scramjets are engines that can handle airflows at velocities multiples of the speed of sound.
  • At a supersonic speed of more than Mach two, air from the atmosphere is driven into the combustion chamber of an air-breathing scramjet engine.
  • The cruiser will move at a hypersonic speed of Mach six to seven as the air mixes with the fuel in the chamber to start a supersonic combustion.
  • The acronym Scramjet refers to a supersonic combustion ramjet.
  • Source – The Hindu – 06/12/21 – Page Number 15



Topic – Health related issues

  • Context:
  • The INSACOG (Indian SARS CoV – 2 Genomics Consortium) has recommended a COVID-19 immunisation booster dose. The suggestion is for people above the age of 40.
  • The following are some of the reasons why INSACOG recommends booster shots:
  • The guidance is meant to help the country deal with its Omicron threats.
  • In South Africa, the COVID-19 variant Omicron was recently found.
  • It is categorised as a “Variant of Concern” by the World Health Organization.
  • According to INSACOG, detecting the presence of the variation in the early phases of its introduction into the country is challenging.
  • What are ‘Booster Shots,’ and what do they do:
  • Booster shots are a second round of vaccinations.
  • They’re given when the first shots’ protection starts to wear off.
  • Booster shots help people keep their immune systems in good shape.
  • What’s the difference between a booster shot and a second dose of medicine:
  • Booster doses are given after a person has completed his or her vaccination series.
  • It’s provided to help with virus protection.
  • This is due to the virus’s ability to protect itself eroding over time.
  • Extra doses, on the other hand, are given to people with severely compromised immune systems.
  • It’s given to people to help them respond to the vaccine more effectively.
  • Additional doses are given to those who have had cancer treatment, a stem cell transplant, immune-deficiency conditions, or who have been diagnosed with HIV.
  • Source – The Hindu – 06/12/21 – Page Number 6



Topic – Geography related topics

  • Context:
  • The Bay of Bengal’s deep depression has strengthened into cyclonic storm Jawad, which is predicted to impact the beaches of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Who came up with the idea for the name:
  • Saudi Arabia has given the cyclone the name ‘Jawad.’ The word ‘Jawad’ means’merciful’ or ‘liberal.’ This is crucial because this cyclone is expected to be milder than previous ones.
  • The following factors contribute to the formation of cyclones:
  • Cyclones form over oceanic water in the tropical area.
  • This is where the sun beams greatest, warming the land and sea surfaces. As the surface of the ocean heats, heated moist air rises, and chilly air rushes in to fill the void, warming and rising with it – the cycle repeats.
  • What is the source of the spin:
  • Windlways blows from high-pressure areas to low-pressure places.
  • High pressure areas form in the cold, whereas low pressure areas form in the warm.
  • Polar regions have higher pressure than tropical places because they receive less sunshine.
  • Wind blows from the poles to the tropics as a result.
  • Then there’s the Earth’s west-to-east migration.
  • The Earth’s rotation on its axis deflects the wind (in the tropical zone since the Earth’s rotating speed is quicker than the polar sides due to its spherical form — blowing from both polar regions).
  • The Arctic wind is deflected to the right, while the Antarctic wind is deflected to the left.
  • As a result, the wind has already started to blow in one direction.
  • Cool air is pulled to the centre to fill the void when it reaches a warmer place.
  • Cool air is deflected as the cyclone approaches the centre, resulting in wind circulation; this process continues until the storm reaches land.
  • What happens when a cyclone approaches land:
  • When a cyclone strikes land, the warm water that rises to make way for cool water is no longer accessible, and the cyclone dissipates.
  • Furthermore, clouds form when moist air rises, resulting in rains that accompany high winds during cyclones.
  • Source – The Hindu – 06/12/21 – Page Number 1


Prelims Specific Topic

  • Mount Semeru Volcano Information:
  • The highest and most active volcano in Java is Semeru, often known as “The Great Mountain.”
  • It erupted for the last time in December of this year.
  • Indonesia, which boasts the world’s most active volcanoes, is vulnerable to seismic activity due to its placement on the Pacific Ring of Fire.
  • Semeru volcano is one of the island arcs formed by the sinking of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Sunda Plate (part of Eurasian Plate).
  • The Sunda trench was formed here, with the Java Trench as its main component.
  • What is the Pacific Ring of Fire:
  • It is a volcanic ring in the Pacific Ocean.
  • The Pacific Ring of Fire, also known as the Circum-Pacific Belt, is a swath of land stretching around the Pacific Ocean defined by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.
  • It follows the Pacific, Cocos, Indian-Australian, Nazca, North American, and Philippine Plates’ tectonic plate boundaries.
  • The following are some facts about Island Arcs:
  • Volcanic and seismic activity, as well as orogenic (mountain-building) processes, link vast, curved arcs of oceanic islands.
  • An island arc usually has a land mass or a partially contained, unusually shallow sea on its concave side.
  • On the convex side, a long, narrow deep-sea trench almost always exists.
  • The Mariana and Tonga trenches, which hold the world’s deepest ocean depths, are two instances of these seafloor depressions.
  • Two major examples of this type of geologic structure are the Aleutian-Alaska Arc and the Kuril-Kamchatka Arc.
  • Source – The Hindu – 06/12/21 – Page Number 11