09th December 2021

No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About the Ken Betwa Interlinking Project Prelims & Mains
2.    Post of the Chief of Defence Staff Prelims & Mains
3.    About the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Prelims & Mains
4.    Details of the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2021 Prelims & Mains
5.    About the MI 17 V5 Helicopter Prelims Specific




Topic – Environmental Conservation & Water Conservation related issues

  • Background:
  • On the occasion of World Water Day 2021, Union Jal Shakti Minister Gajendra Singh Shekhawat signed a tripartite agreement with the governments of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh to begin work on India’s first major river interlinking project, which will connect the Ken and Betwa Rivers.
  • Due to disagreements between the two governments over water sharing, the Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) was signed nearly 18 years after the project’s conception.
  • About the Project:
  • The Ken-Betwa initiative is a collaboration between Ken and Betwa.
  • The project intends to move excess water from the Ken river in MP to Betwa in UP in order to irrigate the drought-prone Bundelkhand region, which is stretched across districts in both states, primarily Jhansi, Banda, Lalitpur, and Mahoba in UP and Tikamgarh, Panna, and Chhatarpur in MP.
  • Important facts:
  • The Ken and Betwa rivers are tributaries of the Yamuna that originate in MP.
  • Ken meets Yamuna in the Banda district of Uttar Pradesh and Betwa in the Hamirpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Betwa river is crossed by the dams Rajghat, Paricha, and Matatila.
  • The Panna Tiger Reserve is located along the Ken River.
  • Source – The Hindu – 09/12/21 – Page Number 1



Topic – Constitutional & Non-Constitutional Posts

  • Context:
  • General Bipin Rawat, India’s first CDS, has been martyred along with his wife and 11 other Indian Army personnel in a helicopter crash in the Tamil Nadu state on December 8, 2021.
  • In 2019, he became the country’s first Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).
  • According to the government’s announcement, the CDS upper age restriction has been set at 65 years. The tenure of the CDS, on the other hand, is yet to be determined.
  • About CDS:
  • As stated by the Kargil Review Committee in 1999, he will be the government’s single-point military adviser.
  • The CDS is in charge of overseeing and coordinating the activities of the three Services.
  • Conditions of Service:
  • He will be a General with the rank of four stars.
  • After demitting the position of CDS, he is ineligible to hold any government office.
  • For a period of five years after leaving the CDS office, no private job is permitted without prior consent.
  • Roles and responsibilities:
  • The CDS will give the government with “single-point military counsel” and inject synergy into the armed forces’ planning, procurement, and logistics.
  • Through the eventual establishment of theatre commands, it will ensure the integration of land-air-sea operations.
  • The CDS will also serve as a military advisor to the PM-led Nuclear Command Authority, as well as having direct command of tri-Service groups tasked with dealing with the emerging warfare domains of space and cyberspace.
  • He will serve as the Defence Minister’s Principal Military Adviser as well as the Permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC).
  • The CDS will be a part of the Défense Acquisition Council and the Défense Planning Committee.
  • Significance:
  • If successfully executed, the CDS charter will prepare the 15-million-strong armed forces for future wars. The CDS is in charge of ensuring that the Army, Navy, and IAF, which are sometimes pulled in opposite directions, truly integrate to cut unnecessary spending in the face of a serious funding crunch for military modernisation due to increasing pay and pension expenditures.
  • Source – The Hindu – 09/12/21 – Page Number 1



Topic – Environmental Conservation related issues

  • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is a protected area in the state of Tamil Nadu, India
  • The term ‘Nilgiris,’ which means ‘blue mountains’ in Tamil, is derived from the blue flower-covered mountains of the Nilgiris plateau in Tamil Nadu.
  • It was India’s first biosphere reserve, having been created in 1986.
  • The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve covers a total area of 5,520 square kilometres.
  • It spans sections of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka and is located in the Western Ghats.
  • Characteristics of the Environment:
  • Confluence of Biotic Zones: The tropical forest biome demonstrates the world’s confluence of Afro-tropical and Indo-Malayan biotic zones.
  • Biodiversity Hotspot: The Western Ghats are the most important biogeographic region for speciation in the tropics, and one of the notable Biodiversity Hotspots (biogeographic regions with the highest number of endemic species).
  • The NBR is home to a diverse range of ecosystem types. Evergreen, semi-evergreen, wet deciduous montane sholas, and grassland types of vegetation make up the majority of the core areas in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • The main area, which spans the state of Karnataka, is mostly made up of dry deciduous forests with a few pockets of moist deciduous, semi-evergreen, and scrub jungles.
  • Flora and Fauna:
  • Animals found here include the Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiri langur, slender loris, blackbuck, tiger, gaur, Indian elephant, and marten.
  • Freshwater fish native to this Biosphere Reserve include the Nilgiri danio (Devario neilgherriensis), Nilgiri barb (Hypselobarbus dubuis), and Bowany barb (Puntius bovanicus).
  • Many important tributaries of the Cauvery River, such as the Bhavani, Moyar, and Kabini, as well as other rivers like the Chaliyar, Punampuzha, and others, have their source and catchment areas within the reserve border.
  • Todas, Kotas, Irullas, Kurumbas, Paniyas, Adiyans, Edanadan Chettis, Cholanaickens, Allar, Malayan, and other tribal groups are native to the reserve
  • Encompassing Wildlife Sanctuaries & National Parks within the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve:
  • The Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Mukurthi National Park, and Silent Valley are among of the protected sites in the NBR.
  • Source – The Hindu – 09/12/21 – Page Number 9



Topic – Government Policies & Interventions

  • Context:
  • The bill’s goal is to make ART more regulated (Assisted Reproduction Technology). Infertility is treated with ART. ART involves removing the eggs from the woman’s body and combining them with sperm to create embryos. The law was just passed by the Lok Sabha.
  • This is how the bill defines ART:
  • All approaches for obtaining pregnancy are included in ART. Handling oocytes (immature eggs) or sperms outside the human body is one of the approaches.
  • It also entails implanting the embryo into the woman’s body.
  • The following are examples of ART services:
  • Sperm or oocyte donation
  • In – Vitro is a term that refers to a test that is Fertilization is the process of combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory.
  • Surrogacy:
  • A child is borne by a woman who is neither the biological mother or a surrogate mother.
  • ART clinics and banks are regulated.
  • Every ART bank or clinic shall be registered with the National Registry of Banks and Clinics of India, according to the bill. The National Registry will be established as a result of the measure. The register will serve as a central database for clinics and banks that provide ART services.
  • Clinics and banks will only be eligible for registration if they meet specific requirements. Physical infrastructure, specialised labour, diagnostic facilities, and so on are all covered by these requirements.
  • For a period of five years, the registration is valid.
  • The bill’s terms and conditions:
  • The semen must be collected and stored by a registered bank or clinic.
  • Only males between the ages of 21 and 55 can donate their sperm.
  • Only ladies between the ages of 23 and 35 are eligible to donate oocytes.
  • The ideal woman should be perpetually married. She should also have at least one living kid of her own, who is at least three years old.
  • A single donor’s gamete should not be distributed to more than one couple by the bank (seeking service).
  • Boards at the national and state levels
  • The measure establishes national and state surrogacy boards.
  • The following are the boards’ powers and functions:
  • To provide advice to the federal government on ART policies.
  • To assess and oversee the act’s implementation
  • Developing a code of ethics and standards for ART clinics and banks
  • To supervise the numerous bodies established under the act
  • Source – The Hindu – 09/12/21 – Page Number 10


Prelims Specific Topic

  • The Mi-17V-5 is a military transport helicopter built in Russia that can transport soldiers, cargo, and equipment.
  • It has an exterior sling that can carry things on the outside as well. Its main mission is to drop tactical air drops on targets on the ground and transport the wounded.
  • The helicopter is equipped with a strongly armoured cockpit and a self-defence system against heat-seeking missiles, according to information published on the Rosoboronexport website, a Russian arms exporter.
  • It has the ability to carry weapons such as unguided rockets, artillery, and small arms.
  • An Mi-17V-5 is hailed as one of the most modern military transports, capable of operating in any geographical location, in any climatic condition, at any time of day or night, and with significant armour protection.
  • The helicopter offers a number of benefits, including the ability to operate at high altitudes and in hot weather, as well as high target approach precision thanks to the use of a satellite navigation system.
  • Source – The Hindu – 09/12/21 – Page Number 1