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11th February 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    WHAT ARE SESSIONS COURT Prelims & Mains
2.    ABOUT THE ‘RFID’ TECHNOLOGY Prelims & Mains




Topic – Indian Judiciary

  • Appointment of a District Judge:
  • The district judge is also known as a “Metropolitan session judge” while presiding over a district court in a city designated by the State Government as a “Metropolitan region.”
  • The district court has appellate authority over all subordinate courts in the district in both civil and criminal proceedings.
  • The district and sessions judge is referred to as “district judge” when sitting over civil issues, and “sessions judge” when presiding over criminal affairs.
  • The Governor of the State selects district judges, as well as the posting and promotion of district judges, in coordination with the High Court holding authority over the State.
  • A person who is not already employed by the Union or the State can only be appointed a district judge if he has worked as an advocate or a pleader for at least seven years and has been nominated for appointment by the High Court, according to Article 233 (2).
  • Members of the Bar should be considered for appointments at all three levels, i.e., district judges, high courts, and the Supreme Court, as envisioned by the Constitution’s writers.
  • This is because lawyers who work in the courts have direct contact with the people who need their services, and their perspectives on how the courts run are always evolving.
  • The Supreme Court has ruled that the only method to become a District Judge is to be promoted in accordance with Article 234 Rules, and that subordinate judicial officers, even if they have seven years of experience as an advocate, cannot apply or compete for direct appointment as District Judges.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Technological Interventions

  • The term RFID refers to a method of encoding digital data in RFID tags or smart labels that may be read by a reader.
  • In the same way that a device captures data from a tag, it’s similar to barcoding.
  • RFID is a type of technology that also incorporates automatic data collecting and identification.
  • Such technology recognises objects, collects data about them, and feeds it directly into the computer with little or no human involvement.
  • Components of an RFID system:
  • The three components are an RFID tag or label, a reader, and an antenna.
  • To convey data to the reader, the tag has a circuit and an antenna integrated in.
  • The reader then converts the waves that have been sent into a usable type of data.
  • The data is subsequently transferred to a host computer system, where it can be analysed and stored.
  • RFID Technology’s Applications:
  • Logistics and supply chain – RFID technology is utilised in supply chains and logistics. By giving visibility, RFID can help enhance efficiency, reduce errors, and improve quality in the supply chain.
  • Inventory tracking – Tracing items through the supply chain to the point of scale can be done in minutes with the help of an RFID reader.
  • Attendee tracking — Managing a conference with an RFID-based system can help avoid the need for long registration lines.
  • RFID-based access – Some locations require a higher level of security. RFID control tag access might be limited to those who have been pre-approved.
  • Real-time location system – With this system, you can track the position of employees and assets in real time. It assists with the evaluation of a floor-based strategy as well as resource tracking.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Environmental Conservation related issues

  • In a significant discovery, the longest in-country migration route of lesser floricans, endangered bustards, was tracked for the first time from Rajasthan to Maharashtra’s Ahmednagar region.
  • They are described as follows:
  • The bustard’s smallest member is the Lesser Floricans (Sypheotides indicus), often known as the likh or kharmore.
  • It’s unique to the Indian Subcontinent, where it lives in tall grasses, and the males are famous for their monsoon-season leaping breeding displays.
  • The male has contrasting black and white breeding plumage, as well as long head feathers that reach behind the neck.
  • These bustards are typically found in northwestern and central India during the summer, but they are more widely distributed throughout India during the winter.
  • The only other species that comes close is the Bengal florican (Houbarobsis bengalensis), which is larger and lacks the white throat, collar, and expanded plumes.
  • The conservation status of the Lesser Florican is:
  • The Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 lists the Lesser Florican on Schedule 1.
  • The bird is listed as “Critically Endangered” on the Red List of Threatened Species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  • Threats:
  • This species is threatened by both hunting and habitat degradation.
  • The species is critically endangered, and certain parts of its range have been officially hunted to extinction, such as Pakistan.
  • Source – Down to Earth



Topic – Indian Economy

  • “Corporate Social Responsibility” can be defined as a corporate endeavour to assess and accept responsibility for the company’s environmental and social welfare consequences in general.
  • In India, the concept of CSR is governed by Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • India is the first government in the world to create a framework for identifying feasible CSR programmes as well as a CSR spending obligation.
  • The Act’s CSR standards apply to companies with an annual turnover of Rs. 1,000 crore or more, a net worth of Rs. 500 crore or more, or a net profit of Rs. 5 crore or more.
  • Businesses must organise a CSR committee that will recommend a Corporate Social Responsibility Policy to the Board of Directors and monitor it on a regular basis, according to the Act.
  • Under the Act, businesses are encouraged to spend 2% of their average net profit over the previous three years on CSR efforts.
  • The activities that a firm can engage in as part of its CSR programme are listed in Schedule VII of the Act.
  • The activities include eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, promoting education, gender equality, and women’s empowerment, combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and contributing to the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund or any other Central Government fund established for socio-economic development and relief, as well as funds for the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Statutory & Non-Statutory Bodies

  • Introduction:
  • It will investigate abuses of human rights in the areas listed on the state and concurrent lists.
  • The SHRC will not investigate if the NHRC or another statutory panel has already done so.
  • The NHRC’s aims and responsibilities remain the same.
  • Composition:
  • It is made up of two members and a chairperson.
  • A serving or retired judge of the HC or a district judge with 7 years of experience, as well as someone with expertise or practical experience in the field of human rights, shall be included among the members.
  • The Chairperson and members of the SHRC are appointed by the Governor based on the recommendations of a committee that includes:
  • Canada’s Prime Minister (chairperson)
  • Ministry of the Interior Minister
  • The Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Council
  • The Leader of the Opposition in the legislative assembly
  • Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
  • Chairman of the Legislative Council
  • Appointment:
  • Only the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court can appoint a sitting HC judge or a sitting district judge.
  • After leaving office, members are ineligible for any federal or state government appointment.
  • Members who meet specified age restrictions are eligible for reappointment.
  • The term has a duration of 70 years or 5 years.
  • Removal:
  • Bankruptcy, unsound mind, disease of the body or mind, being sentenced to prison for a crime, or working for a living are all grounds for the president’s dismissal.
  • He could be fired if a SC investigation deems him guilty of misbehaviour or incapacity. They can resign by writing a letter to the governor.
  • Powers:
  • If a case is submitted within one year of the incident, the commission has the same authority as a civil court and can hear it.
  • It has the authority to recommend victim reparations and criminal charges against the accused. Such proposals, however, are not legally binding.
  • It gives state legislatures special or annual reports documenting the measures performed in response to its recommendations, as well as the reasons for declining to accept advice.
  • Source – The Hindu

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