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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS

03rd February 2022

 No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    ELECTORAL BONDSPrelims & Mains
2.    DELIMITATION COMMISSIONPrelims & Mains
3.    COLLEGIUM SYSTEMPrelims & Mains
4.    ZYCOV D VACCINEPrelims Specific

 

  1. ELECTORAL BONDS:

GS II

Topic – Election related issues:

  • Electoral Bonds are a type of financial instrument that can be used to make payments to political parties.
  • The bonds are available in denominations of Rs. 1,000, Rs. 10,000, Rs. 1 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh, and Rs. 1 crore, with no upper limit.
  • The State Bank of India is authorized to issue and redeem these bonds, which have a fifteen-day validity period.
  • These bonds can be redeemed in a registered political party’s designated account.
  • The bonds are available for purchase by any person (who is an Indian citizen or who is incorporated or founded in India) for ten days in each of the months of January, April, July, and October, as determined by the Central Government.
  • Individuals can purchase bonds either alone or collectively with other individuals.
  • The name of the donor is not mentioned on the bond.
  • Source – The Hindu – 03rd February 2022 – Page Number 1
  1. DELIMITATION COMMISSION: 

GS II

Topic – Election related issues:

  • The President of India appoints the Delimitation Commission, which collaborates with the Election Commission of India.
  • Composition:
  • Former Supreme Court justice
  • Chief Electoral Officer
  • Election Commissioners from each state
  • Functions:
  • To calculate the number of constituencies and their boundaries in order to make the population of all constituencies virtually equal.
  • To locate seats set aside for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in areas where their populations are substantially large.
  • In the event of a disagreement among Commission members, the majority opinion takes precedence.
  • In India, the Delimitation Commission is a powerful organization whose decisions have legal weight and cannot be challenged in court.
  • Current Delimitation Situation:
  • In the 2009 general elections, 499 of the 543 Parliamentary seats were defined for the first time.
  • Except for J&K, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Manipur, and Nagaland, this affected the National Capital Region of Delhi, the Union Territory of Puducherry, and all other states except J&K, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Manipur, and Nagaland.
  • Source – The Hindu – 03rd February 2022 – Page Number 3
  1. COLLEGIUM SYSTEM

GS II

Topic – Election related issues:

  • The Collegium System refers to the system of appointing and removing judges that has emerged as a result of Supreme Court decisions rather than an Act of Parliament or a provision of the Constitution.
  • The System’s Evolution:
  • The “primacy” of the Chief Justice of India’s (CJI) advice on judicial appointments and transfers might be declined for “cogent reasons,” according to the First Judges Case (1981).
  • For the next 12 years, the Executive has priority over the Judiciary in judicial selections.
  • Second Judges Case (1993): The Supreme Court established the Collegium system, concluding that “consultation” required “consent.”
  • It went on to say that it was not the CJI’s personal judgment, but rather an institutional one made in collaboration with the SC’s two most senior judges.
  • Third Judges Case (1998): On the President’s recommendation, the Collegium was expanded to a five-member panel, consisting of the Chief Justice and four of his most senior colleagues.
  • The SC collegium is led by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and consists of the court’s four most senior judges.
  • A HC collegium is led by the Chief Justice and four of the court’s most senior judges.
  • Only until the CJI and the SC collegium have approved an HC collegium’s recommendation for appointment does it reach the government.
  • The collegium method is used to nominate judges in the higher judiciary, and the government is only involved after the collegium has settled on names.
  • If a lawyer is to be raised as a judge in a High Court or the Supreme Court, the government’s participation is limited to requesting an investigation by the Intelligence Bureau (IB).
  • IB (Intelligence Bureau): It is a well-known and well-established intelligence organization. The Ministry of Home Affairs has ultimate authority for it.
  • It can also protest to the collegium’s choices and seek clarifications, but if the collegium repeats the same names, the government is compelled by Constitution Bench decisions to install them as judges.
  • Source – The Hindu – 03rd February 2022 – Page Number 9
  1. ZYCOV D VACCINE:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • ZyCov-D is a “plasmid DNA” vaccination, which means it uses a genetically designed, non-replicating version of a DNA molecule called a “plasmid.”
  • The instructions to manufacture the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes Covid-19, are coded on the plasmids in this case.
  • Vaccination sends the code to cells in the recipient’s body, instructing them to start creating the virus’s spiky outer shell.
  • It’s predicted that the immune system will perceive this as a threat and produce antibodies in response.

 

 

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