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11th January 2022

 No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
5.    ABOUT THE INNER LINE PERMIT Prelims Specific




Topic – Environmental Conservation related issues

  • The National Clean Air Program is comprised of the following components:
  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change launched it in 2019.
  • It was not reported to the Environmental Protection Agency or any other government agency.
  • It is envisioned as a strategy to offer a framework for the states and the federal government to address air pollution.
  • Its main target is to reduce the concentration of coarse (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometer or less, or PM10) and fine (particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometer or less, or PM2.5) particles in the atmosphere by at least 20% by 2024, using 2017 as a baseline.
  • Who will all take part:
  • The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Ministry of Heavy Industry, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, NITI Aayog, and the Central Pollution Control Board will collaborate on the program, which will include experts from industry and academia.
  • Which cities will be affected:
  • Non-attainment cities were first selected from 102 cities across 23 states and territories.
  • The majority of the cities considered are tier two cities, with the exception of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bengaluru.
  • The cities were chosen based on ambient air quality data collected by the National Air Quality Monitoring Program (NAMP) between 2011 and 2015.
  • The state of Maharashtra had the most cities selected for the program.
  • Source – The Hindu – 11/01/22 – Page Number 3



Topic – Federalism related issues

  • Context:
  • Telangana and Andhra Pradesh have complained to the Supreme Court that Karnataka has not provided any information on how much Krishna river water it has diverted in the last 14 years.
  • Karnataka, on the other hand, contended that a lot of water is wasted — “streaming down into the ocean” — and that it is necessary to use it for cultivation and to replenish parched areas.
  • Karnataka’s demands:
  • Karnataka has asked the Supreme Court to vacate an order from November 16, 2011 that prevented the Centre from publishing in the Official Gazette the final order of the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal II (KWDT) issued in December 2010, allocating river water to Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
  • On November 29, 2013, the KWDT modified its final order and report to distribute surplus water to Karnataka, Maharashtra, and the erstwhile State of Andhra Pradesh while preserving the 2130 TMC originally allocated to them.
  • What exactly is the problem now:
  • The publishing of the Tribunal’s order is a necessary requirement for its implementation.
  • Following Andhra Pradesh’s bifurcation, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court disputing the KWDT’s share allotment.
  • What should be done right now:
  • Karnataka has argued that the Supreme Court’s 2011 order not to publish the KWDT decisions in the Official Gazette under Section 6(1) of the Inter-State Water Disputes Act of 1956 has caused its dam and irrigation projects worth thousands of crores to be stalled for years, preventing it from providing water to its parched northern areas.
  • Karnataka has stated that the conflict between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana is between the two states and does not affect it.
  • Karnataka has the following challenges:
  • The KWDT’s ruling was only valid until 2050, after which it had to be revisited or altered.
  • Since 2010, ten years have passed in the courtroom. Several irrigation projects in Karnataka took at least ten years to complete, with a total cost of 60,000 crore in 2014-15.
  • The costs would rise by 10% to 15% per year. Even if the irrigation projects are completed in ten years, getting approval from the Central Water Commission will take time.
  • What exactly is the point of contention:
  • The conflict originated with the former republics of Hyderabad and Mysore, and has now spread to successor states Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Under the Inter-State River Water Dispute Act, 1956, the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT) was established in 1969 and published its report in 1973.
  • The research, which was published in 1976, divided the 2060 TMC (thousand million cubic feet) of Krishna water into three segments based on 75% dependability:
  • Maharashtra will receive 560 TMC.
  • Karnataka will receive 700 TMC.
  • Andhra Pradesh will receive 800 TMC.
  • Order has been changed:
  • The second KWDT was established in 2004 when fresh complaints between the states surfaced.
  • It issued a report in 2010 that made the following allocations of Krishna water with a 65 percent reliability and for surplus flows:
  • Maharashtra has 81 TMC, Karnataka has 177 TMC, while Andhra Pradesh has 190 TMC.
  • Andhra Pradesh is requesting that Telangana be included as a distinct party at the KWDT and that the allocation of Krishna waters be split among four states instead of three, following the formation of Telangana as a separate state in 2014.
  • Source – The Hindu – 11/01/22 – Page Number 1



Topic – Indian Economy

  • About the Quarterly Employment Survey (QES):
  • The Quarterly Employment Survey (QES) is a component of the All-India Quarterly Establishment-based Employment Survey (AIQEES) (AQEES).
  • It applies to businesses in the organized sector that employ ten or more people in nine different industries.
  • Manufacturing, Construction, Trade, Transportation, Education, Health, Accommodation and Restaurants, Information Technology/BPO, and Financial Service Activities are the nine sectors.
  • The goal is to give the government the tools it needs to develop a “strong national policy on employment.”
  • In 1998, India ratified the ILO’s Employment Policy Convention of 1964, which mandates ratifying nations to follow “an active policy geared to encourage full, productive, and freely selected employment.” Currently, India lacks a National Employment Policy (NEP).
  • PLFS vs. QES:
  • While the QES focuses on the demand side of the labor market, the National Sample Survey or Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) focuses on the supply side.
  • The National Statistical Organization (NSO) and the Ministry of Statistics and Public Information (MoSPI) are in charge of the PLFS (Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation).
  • Problem with QES Statistics: Because the QES only covers establishments with at least 10 employees, it only gives data on the formal economy.
  • Given that informal workers (those without written contracts or benefits) make for nearly 90% of India’s workforce, the QES only gives a limited picture of the labor market.
  • QES 2021 Data Highlights:
  • Over a base of 2013-14, shows a 29 percent rise in employment in nine sectors during the peak Covid-19 months of April-June 2021. (Sixth Economic Census – EC).
  • The proportion of women in the workforce has decreased.
  • From 31% in the 6th EC (2013) to 29% in the QES data for 2021.
  • Seven of the nine industries showed job growth, while only two (Trade and Accommodation and Restaurants) saw job losses.
  • During the period 2013-2021, the IT/BPO industry grew at the fastest rate of 152 percent.
  • There has been an absolute increase in employment figures between 1998 and 2021.
  • The period 2005-2013 had the highest employment growth rate (38%) since 1998 (4th EC).
  • Between 1998 and 2021, the simple growth rate of employment fluctuated and was not linear.
  • Source – The Hindu – 11/01/22 – Page Number 1



Topic – Indian Agriculture

  • About Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP):
  • After urea, DAP is India’s second most commonly used fertiliser.
  • This fertiliser is typically applied soon before or at the start of sowing because it is strong in phosphorus (P), which promotes root development.
  • Farmers favor DAP (46 percent P, 18 percent Nitrogen) as a supply of phosphorus. This is identical to urea, their preferred nitrogenous fertilizer with a 46 percent nitrogen content.
  • About the Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme:
  • The MRP of urea is fixed under the current arrangement, however the subsidy can change, but the MRP of DAP is uncontrolled (i.e subsidy is fixed but the MRP can vary).
  • The Nutrient Based Subsidy Scheme regulates all non-urea based fertilizers.
  • The NBS (Nutrient-Based Subsidy) Program:
  • Fertilizers are distributed to farmers at subsidized rates depending on the nutrients (N, P, K, and S) included in these fertilizers under the NBS regime.
  • In addition, fertilizers supplemented with secondary and micronutrients such as molybdenum (Mo) and zinc are given a boost.
  • The government announces annual Phosphatic and Potassic (P&K) fertilizer subsidies for each nutrient on a per kg basis, which are calculated using foreign and domestic P&K fertilizer prices, exchange rates, inventory levels in the country, and other factors.
  • The NBS strategy is to enhance the use of P&K fertilizers in order to achieve an optimal NPK fertilization balance (N:P:K= 4:2:1).
  • As a result, soil health would improve, and agricultural yields would increase, resulting in increased income for farmers.
  • Furthermore, because the government anticipates rational fertilizer use, the burden of fertilizer subsidies would be reduced.
  • The Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers’ Department of Fertilizers has been implementing it since April 2010.
  • Source – The Hindu – 11/01/22 – Page Number 4


Prelims Specific Topic

  • What is an ILP, exactly:
  • It is a document that non-natives must have in order to visit or stay in a state protected by the ILP system.
  • Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland are the four Northeastern states now covered. For entry into Lakshadweep, an inner line permit is also required.
  • The ILP determines both the length of stay and the locations that non-natives are permitted to visit.
  • The ILP is issued by the state government in question and can be obtained either online or in person.
  • Only domestic tourists are eligible for an ILP.
  • The reason behind this is that:
  • The Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act of 1873 is extended by the Inner Line Permit.
  • Following the British occupation of the Northeast, colonists began exploiting the region and its resources for financial gain.
  • In the Brahmaputra Valley, they first established tea plantations and oil businesses.
  • The indigenous tribes of the hills would raid the plains on a regular basis, looting and plundering the tea plantations, oil rigs, and trading facilities established by the British East India Company.
  • The BEFR 1873 was enacted in this context.
  • Source – The Hindu – 11/01/22 – Page Number 4

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