Have a question?
Message sent Close



14th January 2022

 No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    BORDER SECURITY FORCE Prelims & Mains
2.    ELECTORAL BONDS Prelims & Mains
3.    PONGAL FESTIVAL Prelims & Mains
4.    JALLIKATTU Prelims & Mains
5.    LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL Prelims Specific




Topic – Internal Security

  • In the aftermath of the 1965 war, the Border Security Force (BSF) was formed.
  • It is a Ministry of Home Affairs-run Central Armed Police Force. The Indian Border Security Force (BSF) is the world’s largest border guarding force.
  • BSF Responsibilities:
  • Peacetime Responsibilities:
  • Stop illegal infiltration at the Indian border.
  • Smuggling and other illicit acts should be avoided.
  • Instill a sense of security in people who live near borders.
  • At Time of War:
  • Defense of critical installations, such as airfields, from enemy raids.
  • Anti-infiltration responsibilities in designated locations to assist the army by preventing enemy forces from entering India.
  • Serving as guides in known regions to help Armed Forces cross borders into remote areas.
  • Keeping Law and Order in Enemy Territories Administrated Under Army Control.
  • Observing and assisting detainees and refugees.
  • BSF’s contributions:
  • The BSF provided personnel to UN missions in a number of capacities.
  • The BSF has effectively constructed border walls in Jammu and Kashmir to deter Pakistani infiltration.
  • The BSF has performed admirably in natural disasters like as the Gujarat Earthquakes of 2001.
  • The BSF has taken a number of steps to guarantee that India’s Law and Order, Internal Peace, and Security are maintained.
  • The Border Security Force (BSF) has played an important role in maintaining peace and security along Indian borders.
  • They have aided the Indian Armed Forces in securing the country’s borders to a greater extent.
  • In today’s geopolitical situation, the job of the BSF in protecting Indian borders is critical.
  • Source – The Hindu – 14th January 2022 – Page Number 4



Topic – Election related issues

  • What are electoral bonds, and how do they work:
  • Electoral Bonds are a type of financial instrument that can be used to make payments to political parties.
  • The bonds are available in denominations of Rs. 1,000, Rs. 10,000, Rs. 1 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh, and Rs. 1 crore, with no upper limit.
  • The State Bank of India is authorized to issue and redeem these bonds, which have a fifteen-day validity period.
  • These bonds can be redeemed in a registered political party’s designated account.
  • The bonds are available for purchase by any person (who is an Indian citizen or who is incorporated or founded in India) for ten days in each of the months of January, April, July, and October, as determined by the Central Government.
  • Individuals can purchase bonds either alone or collectively with other individuals.
  • The name of the donor is not included on the bond.
  • Source – The Hindu – 14th January 2022 – Page Number 4



Topic – Indian Culture

  • Pongal, also known as Thai Pongal (sometimes spelled Tai Pongal), is a multi-day harvest celebration celebrated by the Tamil population in South India.
  • According to the Tamil solar calendar, it is marked at the beginning of the month Tai, which is usually around January 14.
  • It is devoted to Surya, the Sun God, and correlates to Makar Sankranti, the harvest festival celebrated throughout India under several regional names.
  • Bhogi Pongal, Surya Pongal, and Maattu Pongal are the three days of the Pongal festival. The fourth day of Pongal is known as Kanum Pongal by some Tamils.
  • When the sun enters the zodiac Makara, the festival celebrates the conclusion of the winter solstice and the beginning of the sun’s six-month voyage northwards (Capricorn).
  • The celebration is named after the ceremonial “Pongal,” which means “to boil, overflow,” and alludes to a traditional rice meal made with milk and jaggery made from the fresh harvest (raw sugar)
  • Source – The Hindu – 14th January 2022 – Page Number 5



Topic – Indian Culture

  • What is the meaning of Jallikattu:
  • The Jallikattu belt, which includes Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, Theni, Pudukkottai, and Dindigul, is notable for bull-taming.
  • During the Tamil harvest festival, Pongal, Jallikattu is celebrated in the second week of January.
  • Jallikattu, a 2,000-year-old custom, is both a competitive sport and a festival honoring bull owners who raise their animals for mating.
  • It is a violent sport in which players attempt to tame a bull in exchange for a prize; if they fail, the bull owner wins.
  • What is the significance of Jallikattu in Tamil culture:
  • Jallikattu is a traditional method of preserving pure-bred native bulls among the peasant community.
  • At a time when cattle breeding is frequently artificial, conservationists and peasants claim that Jallikattu is a method to conserve these male animals, who are otherwise utilized primarily for meat or ploughing.
  • Why has Jallikattu been dragged through the courts:
  • The Animal Welfare Board of India and the animal rights organization PETA first brought legal action against Jallikattu and bullock cart races in 2007, when they filed petitions in the Supreme Court.
  • The Tamil Nadu administration, on the other hand, managed to get around the prohibition by adopting a bill in 2009 that was signed by the Governor.
  • Bulls were added to the list of animals forbidden from training and exhibition by the UPA regime at the Centre in 2011.
  • The Supreme Court banned bull-taming in May 2014, ruling on a petition using the 2011 announcement.
  • Source – The Hindu – 14th January 2022 – Page Number 8


Prelims Specific Topic

  • What is the source of this disagreement:
  • Except for the width of Pangong Tso, the Border of Actual Control (LAC) — the line that has divided Indian and Chinese soldiers since 1962 – runs mostly along the terrain. It flows through water here.
  • Both sides have delineated their own territories, indicating which side belongs to which country.
  • The Pangong Tso is divided into two halves, one controlled by India and the other by China.
  • The finger parts of the lake are as follows:
  • There are eight of them in this competition. Where the LAC crosses through is viewed differently in India and China.
  • The LAC, according to India, passes via Finger 8, China’s ultimate military outpost.
  • India has been patrolling the area up to Finger 8 – primarily on foot because to the nature of the terrain. However, beyond Finger 4, Indian forces have had no active control.
  • The LAC, on the other hand, is said to pass through Finger 2 in China. It has been patrolling up to Finger 4 in light vehicles, and up to Finger 2 on occasion.
  • Why does China wish to infringe on Pangong Tso’s territory:
  • Pangong Tso is strategically important since it is adjacent to Chusul Valley, which was one of the battlegrounds in the 1962 conflict between India and China.
  • China also does not want India to expand its infrastructure near the Laos-Asian Corridor. China is concerned that it may jeopardize its possession of Aksai Chin and the Lhasa-Kashgar highway.
  • Any threat to this highway also exposes China’s imperialist objectives in Pakistan’s seized territories of Ladakh and Jammu & Kashmir, as well as elsewhere in the country.
  • Source – The Hindu – 14th January 2022 – Page Number 10





This will close in 0 seconds

This will close in 0 seconds

This will close in 0 seconds

This will close in 0 seconds