22nd January 2022

 No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
2.    DETAILS OF THE EWS QUOTA Prelims & Mains
5.    ABOUT THE ‘BASIC’ NATIONS Prelims Specific




Topic – Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies

  • About:
  • The government has merged the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), the Computer Centre, and the Central Statistical Office to form the National Sample Survey Office (NSO) (CSO).
  • The Rangarajan Commission envisioned the NSO to implement and maintain statistical standards and coordinate statistical activities of federal and state entities in accordance with the National Statistical Commission’s guidelines (NSC).
  • Secretary would be in charge of the NSO (Statistics and Programme Implementation).
  • The CSO is in charge of coordinating statistical activities in the country as well as developing statistical standards.
  • The NSSO is in charge of conducting large-scale sample surveys across India in a variety of sectors.
  • It is the statistical wing of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation’s parent ministry (MoSPI).
  • The following responsibilities have been assigned to the NSO:
  • Acts as the country’s nodal agency for the planned growth of the statistical system.
  • Establishes and maintains norms and standards in the field of statistics, including concepts and terminology, data gathering methodology, data processing, and data dissemination.
  • Prepares and publishes annual estimates of national product, government and private consumer spending, capital formation, savings, capital stock estimates, and fixed capital consumption.
  • Maintains contacts with international statistical organizations such as the UN Statistical Division (UNSD), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Statistical Institute for Asia and the Pacific (SIAP), and others.
  • Every month, the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is compiled and released in the form of ‘rapid estimates,’ and the Annual Survey of Industries is conducted (ASI)
  • Periodic all-India economic censuses and follow-up enterprise surveys are organized and conducted.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Constitutional Amendments 

  • The 103rd Constitutional Amendment extended the 10% reservation in direct government recruitment and admission to higher educational institutions to “economically inferior” parts of all castes and communities, including Christians and Muslims, who were previously ineligible under existing quotas.
  • Economically Weaker Section (EWS) is defined in the proposed amendment bill as a person who:
  • A household’s annual income is less than Rs 8 lakh.
  • Land for agriculture that is less than 5 acres.
  • A house with a floor area of less than 1000 square feet is considered a residential property.
  • In a notified municipality, a residential plot of less than 100 yards is permitted.
  • In an area where the municipality has not been notified, a residential plot of less than 200 yards is permitted.
  • What would be required for the quota to be implemented:
  • Articles 15 (prohibition of discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth) and 16 (equality of opportunity in public employment) of the Constitution will need to be amended.
  • The amendment must be ratified by at least two-thirds of members present and voting in both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, as well as by the legislatures of at least half of the states.
  • Implications:
  • The 10% allocation would be added to the existing reservation cap of 50% for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes, bringing the total reservation to 60%.
  • The quota is aimed at the lower castes’ poor.
  • This is in addition to the Constitution’s obligation of 50%, necessitating the necessity for a Constitutional Amendment Bill.
  • Indira Sawhney’s case before the Supreme Court:
  • In the Indira Sawhney case of 1992, a nine-judge Supreme Court Constitution Bench particularly examined the question of “whether backward classes can be recognized entirely and exclusively

with reference to the economic criterion.”

  • In its ruling, the court proclaimed a 50% quota to be the rule unless unusual circumstances “inherent in the great diversity of this country and its people” occur.
  • Even at that time, the court said that considerable caution should be used and that a unique case should be made.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies

  • What exactly is CBI:
  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is India’s top investigative agency.
  • It was formed under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1967.
  • It is overseen by the Department of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pensions & Public Grievances, Government of India, which is part of the prime minister’s office.
  • The Central Vigilance Commission, on the other hand, is in charge of investigations under the Prevention of Corruption Act.
  • It also serves as India’s nodal police agency, coordinating investigations on behalf of Interpol member countries.
  • It has a conviction record of 65 to 70%, which puts it on par with the greatest investigation organizations in the world.
  • The CBI is in charge of a number of cases including:
  • Anti-Corruption Crimes – for the investigation of cases brought against public officials and workers of the Central Government, Public Sector Undertakings, Corporations, or Bodies owned or controlled by the Government of India under the Prevention of Corruption Act.
  • Economic Crimes – for the investigation of major financial scams and serious economic frauds, such as crimes involving Fake Indian Currency Notes, Bank Frauds, and Cyber Crime, bank frauds, Import Export & Foreign Exchange violations, large-scale narcotics, antiques, cultural property, and other contraband items, and so on.
  • Special Crimes – cases of terrorism, bomb blasts, kidnapping for ransom, and crimes perpetrated by the mafia/underworld are investigated under the Indian Penal Code and other laws at the request of state governments or on the directives of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
  • Suo Moto Cases – The CBI can only investigate offences in the Union Territories on its own initiative.
  • The CBI can be authorized by the Central Government to investigate a crime in a state, but only with the approval of the state government in question.
  • The Supreme Court and High Courts, on the other hand, have the authority to direct the CBI to investigate a crime anywhere in the country without the permission of the government.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Internal Security related issues

  • Background:
  • Last year, the Special Protection Group (Amendment) Bill, 2019, was recently passed by Parliament. The 1988 SPG Act will be amended by the SPG Bill.
  • The proposed revisions to the Special Protection Group (SPG) Bill are intended to lower the state’s financial burden of VIP protection.
  • The diminution in SPG coverage will also help to dispel the perception that it is a status symbol.
  • About SPG:
  • In 1985, the SPG was formed to provide security for the Prime Minister, former Prime Ministers, and their immediate families.
  • Personnel from the CRPF, Border Security Force, and other Central and State forces make up the SPG.
  • Amendments:
  • Reduced SPG Coverage: The Prime Minister, former Prime Ministers, and their immediate family members will be protected if they live with him in his official house.
  • The Prime Minister, former Prime Ministers, and their immediate family members are currently covered by security.
  • After the past Prime Ministers and their immediate families leave office, protection will be provided for only five years.
  • However, the former Prime Minister’s immediate family must live with him in the designated property.
  • Withdrawal: When a previous Prime Minister’s proximate security is revoked, proximate security is likewise revoked for members of his immediate family.
  • Source – The Hindu
  1. About the ‘BASIC’ Nations:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • The BASIC group was formed as a result of an agreement signed by the four countries on November 28, 2009.
  • They are a group of four major developing countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China.
  • This emerging world alliance, founded and led by China, then formed the final Copenhagen Agreement with the United States.
  • Next, the group works to define a common position on pollution reduction and climate change funding, as well as to trying to persuade other countries to sign the Copenhagen Agreement.
  • Source – The Hindu