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28th January 2022

No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
2.    MINIMUM SUPPORT PRICEPrelims & Mains
4.    WHAT IS ‘IN FLIGHT WIFI’Prelims Specific
5.    ABOUT THE TAIWAN STRAITPrelims Specific




 Topic – Statutory and non-statutory bodies

  • About:
  • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) is a statutory institution in India that promotes human rights. It was established on October 12, 1993 by the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA) of 1993, which also established the State Human Rights Commission.
  • Composition:
  • Either a retired Chief Justice of India or a Supreme Court judge serves as chairperson.
  • They are appointed by the President based on the suggestions of a six-member group that includes:
  • Opposition leaders in both Houses of Parliament Union Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior (head) The Lok Sabha’s Speaker is Rajya Sabha’s Deputy Chairman
  • Office Term and Termination:
  • They serve for three years or until they reach the age of 70, whichever comes first, and the President has the ability to remove them from office under specific situations.
  • Source – The Hindu


Topic – Agriculture related topics

  • What is MSP, exactly:
  • The government purchases grains from farmers at the minimum support price (MSP). MSPs have already been established for 23 crops grown during the Kharif and Rabi seasons.
  • What is the method for calculating it:
  • The MSP is the price at which the government buys crops from farmers, and it is estimated at least 1.5 times the producers’ cost of production.
  • According to the Union Budget for 2018-19, MSP would be retained at 1.5 times the cost of production.
  • The MSP is determined twice a year, based on recommendations from the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), a governmental body that issues reports for the kharif and rabi seasons.
  • Which manufacturing costs are taken into account while establishing MSP:
  • The CACP includes both ‘A2+FL’ and ‘C2’ expenses when recommending MSP.
  • All monetary and in-kind expenses incurred by farmers on seeds, fertilisers, chemicals, hired labour, fuel, and irrigation, among other things, are included in A2 expenditures.
  • On top of A2+FL, C2 expenditures account for the rent and interest foregone on owned land and fixed capital assets, respectively.
  • The MSP’s disadvantages include:
  • The main concern with the MSP is a paucity of government procurement machinery for all products except wheat and rice, which are actively procured under the PDS by the Food Corporation of India.
  • Farmers in states where the grain is completely procured by the government benefit the most, while those in states where the grain is procured less frequently are frequently affected.
  • Source – Ministry of Agriculture Website


Topic – National Security Agencies related issues

  • About the NIA:
  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a federal investigative agency based in India.
  • It is a National Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency with the authority to pursue terror-related offences across state lines without the need for special state authorization.
  • The National Investigation Agency Act, which was passed in 2008, established the agency. The regulating body is the Ministry of Hime Affairs.
  • Jurisdiction:
  • If a case has been filed for one of the offences mentioned in the NIA Act’s schedule, the State Government may request that the NIA handle the investigation.
  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) can also be instructed by the Central Government to take over the investigation of any scheduled offence anywhere in India.
  • Composition:
  • Officers from the Indian Police Service and the Indian Revenue Service make up the NIA.
  • NIA Special Courts:
  • Under Sections 11 and 22 of the NIA Act 2008, the Central Government of India has notified a number of Special Courts for the trial of charges lodged at various NIA police stations.
  • Any question of these courts’ jurisdiction is decided by the Central Government.
  • The Central Government appoints a judge to preside over them on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of the High Court with jurisdiction in that region.
  • In light of the realities in that state, the Supreme Court of India has also been given the jurisdiction to transfer cases from one special court to another special court inside or beyond the state if it is in the best interests of justice.
  • Under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the NIA Special Courts have all the powers of a court of sessions for the trial of any offence.
  • On both facts and law, a Special Court judgement, sentence, or order that is not an interlocutory order may be appealed to the High Court.
  • State legislatures have also been given the power to appoint one or more special courts in their jurisdictions.

Source – The Hindu



Topic – Science and Technology

  • Background:
  • The Indian government has given airlines permission to provide passengers with in-flight WiFi.
  • In 2018, the Telecom Commission approved in-flight Internet and mobile communications access on aircraft flying in Indian airspace.
  • Who has the power to grant permission:
  • The pilot may allow passengers on board an aeroplane in flight to access Internet services via Wi-Fi on board when a laptop, smartphone, tablet, smartwatch, e-reader, or point-of-sale device is used in flight mode or aeroplane mode.
  • What is the protocol for connecting in-flight:
  • In-flight connectivity systems use both terrestrial and satellite internet services.
  • Once flight mode is activated, the plane’s antenna will connect to terrestrial Internet services provided by telecom service providers.
  • Once the aeroplane reaches a height of 3,000 metres, the antenna will switch to satellite-based services.
  • Internet access will not be interrupted for passengers, and cross-interference between terrestrial and satellite networks will be avoided.
  • Upcoming challenges:
  • Airlines will cover the first cost of installing antennae aboard planes. As a result, the higher cost may be reflected in ticket prices.
  • Aside from the equipment, the increased weight and drag generated by the antenna will result in greater fuel costs for aeroplanes.
  • Due to technology and rules, calls can be made from planes, although many airlines do not want noisy cabins.
  • Benefits:
  • Passengers may make phone calls and access the internet while travelling on more than 30 airlines across the world. This service will now help Indian airlines compete against international carriers.
  • Business travellers love these services because they allow them to continue working without interruption.
  • While aboard the plane, other passengers can interact with their loved ones.
  • Source – The Hindu

Prelims Specific Topic

  • Taiwan Strait (Taiwan Strait):
  • The Taiwan Waterway, commonly known as the Formosa Waterway, is a 180-kilometer strait connecting Taiwan and mainland China.
  • The strait is currently a portion of the South China Sea, and it connects to the East China Sea to the north.
  • Asia’s continental shelf surrounds the whole strait, with the narrowest point measuring 130 kilometres.
  • The People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan have long supported the One-China Policy, which considers the Taiwan Strait to be part of a single “China’s” exclusive economic zone.
  • Source – The Indian Express


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