DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS
08th January 2022
|1.||ABOUT THE FOREST COVER OF INDIA||Prelims & Mains|
|2.||DETAILS OF THE NATIONAL STATISTICAL OFFICE||Prelims & Mains|
|3.||ABOUT THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION||Prelims & Mains|
|4.||DETAILS OF THE FOREIGN CONTRIBUTION REGULATION ACT||Prelims & Mains|
|5.||ABOUT THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP ON IMMUNISATION||Prelims Specific|
1 – ABOUT THE FOREST COVER OF INDIA:
Topic – Environmental Conservation related issues
- The biennial “India State of Forest Report (ISFR)” was released by Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
- The Forest Survey of India (FSI), which has been tasked with assessing the country’s forest and tree resources, including wall-to-wall forest cover mapping on a biennial basis, has released the report.
- So far, 16 assessments have been performed since 1987. The ISFR 2019 report is the 16th in the series.
- The ISFR 2019 report is the 16th in the series.
- FSI’s assessment is mostly based on digital data, whether it be satellite data, vector boundaries of districts, or data processing of field measurements, in line with the Government of India’s vision of Digital India.
- The following are some of the advantages of these reports:
- The fundamental goal of the India State of Forest Report (ISFR) is to maintain environmental stability and ecological balance, particularly atmospheric equilibrium, which are essential for the survival of all living forms, including humans, animals, and plants.
- The pursuit of direct economic profit must take a back seat to this primary goal.
- Forest cover, tree cover, mangrove cover, growing stock inside and outside forest regions, carbon stock in India’s forests, Forest Types and Biodiversity, Forest Fire Monitoring, and forest cover at various slopes and elevations are all included in the report.
- The study also includes special theme information on forest cover, such as hill, tribal districts, and the north eastern region.
- The interpretation of satellite data is followed by thorough ground truthing. Other sources of information are also employed to increase the accuracy of the interpreted image.
- The following are some of the major findings of the 2019 “India State of Forest Report (ISFR)”:
- Area-wise Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Maharashtra have the most forest cover in the country, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Maharashtra.
- Mizoram (85.41 percent), Arunachal Pradesh (79.63 percent), Meghalaya (76.33 percent), Manipur (75.46 percent), and Nagaland are the top five states in terms of forest cover as a proportion of total geographical area (75.31 percent ).
- Mangrove habitats are unusual in that they are rich in biodiversity and provide a variety of ecological functions.
- Mangrove cover has been independently recorded in the ISFR 2019, with a total of 4,975 sq km of mangrove cover in the country.
- In comparison to the previous assessment in 2017, there has been a 54-square-kilometer increase in mangrove cover.
- Gujarat (37 sq km), Maharashtra (16 sq km), and Odisha (14 sq km) are the top three states with increasing mangrove cover (8 sq km).
- According to the current assessment, the total carbon stock in the country’s forest is expected to be 7,124.6 million tonnes, an increase of 42.6 million tonnes over the previous assessment in 2017.
- The carbon stock increases by 21.3 million tonnes each year, or 78.2 million tonnes CO2 equivalent.
- Wetlands inside forest areas form important ecosystems and contribute to the diversity of faunal and floral species in forest environments.
- Because of the importance of wetlands, FSI conducted a national operation to find wetlands larger than 1 hectare inside RFA.
- Within the RFA/GW of the country, there are 62,466 wetlands that cover 3.8 percent of the land.
- Tribal District Forest Cover:
- The tribal districts have a total forest cover of 4,22,351 sq km, accounting for 37.54 percent of their geographical area.
- Within the Recorded Forest Area/Green Wash (RFA/GW) in the tribal districts, forest cover has decreased by 741 square kilometers, whereas outside the RFA/GW, forest cover has increased by 1,922 square kilometers.
- There has been a decrease in tree cover inside forests as a result of tribal inhabitants receiving “land titles” (patta), while there has been an increase in tree cover outside the forest due to increased tree plantation and afforestation activities.
- Forest Cover Loss in the North Eastern States:
- The North Eastern region has a total forest cover of 1,70,541 sq km, or 65.05 percent of its geographical area.
- The region’s forest cover has shrunk by 765 square kilometers (0.45 percent). With the exception of Assam and Tripura, all of the states in the region have seen a reduction in forest cover.
- The following are the primary goals that must be met in order to improve green cover:
- Environmental stability is maintained by preserving and, when required, restoring the ecological equilibrium that has been badly affected by the country’s severe deforestation.
- Checking soil erosion and denudation in river, lake, and reservoir catchment areas in the “interest of soil and water conservation, flood and drought mitigation, and reservoir siltation prevention.”
- Examining the extent of sand dunes in Rajasthan’s desert areas and along coastal stretches.
- Massive afforestation and social forestry programs, notably on all denuded, degraded, and unproductive lands, to significantly increase the country’s forest/tree cover.
- Meeting the needs of rural and tribal people for fuel wood, forage, minor forest produce, and small timber.
- Increasing forest productivity to meet critical national demands.
- Encourages effective use of forest products and maximizes wood substitution.
- Creating a major people’s movement, with women at the forefront, to achieve these goals and reduce pressure on existing forests.
- Conserving the country’s natural heritage through maintaining the country’s remaining natural forests, which contain a diverse range of flora and fauna and symbolize the country’s exceptional biological richness and genetic resources.
- India is one of the few countries in the world where forest cover continues to grow.
- According to current estimates, the country’s total forest and tree cover is 80.73 million hectares, or 24.56 percent of its geographical area.
- Karnataka (1,025 sq km), Andhra Pradesh (990 sq km), Kerala (823 sq km), J&K (371 sq km), and Himachal Pradesh are the top five states with increased forest cover (334 sq km)
- This is really encouraging for us, as it implies we are on track to meet our Paris Agreement pledge of 2.5-3 billion carbon sinks, according to the government.
- Source – The Hindu – 08/01/22 – Page Number 6
2 – DETAILS OF THE NATIONAL STATISTICAL OFFICE:
Topic – Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies
- The government has merged the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), the Computer Centre, and the Central Statistical Office to form the National Sample Survey Office (NSO) (CSO).
- The Rangarajan Commission envisioned the NSO to implement and maintain statistical standards and coordinate statistical activities of federal and state entities in accordance with the National Statistical Commission’s guidelines (NSC).
- Secretary would be in charge of the NSO (Statistics and Programme Implementation).
- The CSO is in charge of coordinating statistical activities in the country as well as developing statistical standards.
- The NSSO is in charge of conducting large-scale sample surveys across India in a variety of sectors.
- It is the statistical wing of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation’s parent ministry (MoSPI).
- The following responsibilities have been assigned to the NSO:
- Acts as the country’s nodal agency for the planned growth of the statistical system.
- Establishes and maintains norms and standards in the field of statistics, including concepts and terminology, data gathering methodology, data processing, and data dissemination.
- Prepares and publishes annual estimates of national product, government and private consumer spending, capital formation, savings, capital stock estimates, and fixed capital consumption.
- Maintains contacts with international statistical organizations such as the UN Statistical Division (UNSD), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Statistical Institute for Asia and the Pacific (SIAP), and others.
- Every month, the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is compiled and released in the form of ‘rapid estimates,’ and the Annual Survey of Industries is conducted (ASI)
- Periodic all-India economic censuses and follow-up enterprise surveys are organized and conducted.
- Source – The Hindu – 08/01/22 – Page Number 1
3 – ABOUT THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION:
Topic – Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies
- About NHRC:
- The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) is a non-profit organization that promotes human rights in the United States.
- The Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA) of 1993 created it as a statutory organization on October 12, 1993.
- In addition, the State Human Rights Commission is established by the Act.
- The chairperson is either a retired Chief Justice of India or a Supreme Court judge.
- The President appoints them based on the recommendations of a six-member commission that includes:
- Leaders of the Opposition in both Houses of Parliament Union Home Minister Prime Minister (head) Speaker of the Lok Sabha Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
- Term and termination:
- They are in office for three years or until they reach the age of 70, whichever comes first.
- Under certain circumstances, the President has the authority to remove them from office.
- Source – The Hindu – 08/01/22 – Page Number 4
4 – DETAILS OF THE FOREIGN CONTRIBUTION REGULATION ACT:
Topic – Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies
- About the FCRA Act:
- The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) of 2010 is a federal law that regulates foreign contributions.
- Foreign funding of volunteer groups in India is governed by the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA), which is enforced by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
- Organizations are required to register every five years under the Act.
- All NGOs registered or granted prior approval under the FCRA must now upload details of foreign contributions received and used every three months on their website or the FCRA website, according to the updated FCRA guidelines.
- NGOs must now file their annual reports online, and the hard copy version is no longer required. The annual returns must be posted quarterly on the NGO’s website or the home ministry’s FCRA website.
- Who is eligible to accept foreign contributions:
- After obtaining registration or previous approval from the Central Government, a person with a specific cultural, economic, educational, religious, or social program can receive foreign contributions.
- Who cannot accept foreign contributions under the FCRA:
- Candidate for election
- Any legislator’s member (MP and MLAs)
- A political party or one of its office bearers
- A political organization is a group of people who work together to achieve a common goal.
- Editor, owner, printer, or publishers of a registered newspaper. Correspondent, columnist, cartoonist, editor, owner, printer, or publishers of a registered newspaper.
- A judge, a government employee, or an employee of a corporation or other entity controlled or owned by the government.
- Association or business that produces or broadcasts audio news, audio visual news, or current affairs programs over any electronic medium.
- Any other individuals or organizations that the Central Government has expressly outlawed
- What are the eligibility requirements for registration:
- The Organization:
- Registration is required (under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 or Indian Trusts Act 1882 or section 8 of Companies Act, 2013 etc.)
- Normally, it should have been around for at least three years.
- has engaged in reasonable activities for the welfare of society in its field.
- Over the last three years, it has spent at least Rs.10,00,000/- (Rs. ten lakh) on its operations.
- What does it mean to act in the public interest:
- The Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) governs the receiving of funds from outside India by NGOs working in India.
- Receiving foreign contributions “for any acts damaging to the national interest” is prohibited.
- The Act stipulates that NGOs must obtain approval from the government before receiving foreign money.
- The government has the authority to deny approval if it believes that the donation to the NGO will harm “public interest” or “state economic interests.”
- This condition is clearly exaggerated. There is no clear definition of “public interest” under the law.
- Foreign contribution is defined as:
- It includes dollars, articles other than gifts for personal use, and securities received from a foreign source under the definition of “foreign contribution.”
- Foreign hospitality, on the other hand, refers to any offer from an overseas source to cover the cost of foreign travel, boarding, accommodation, transportation, or medical treatment.
- Source – The Hindu – 08/01/22 – Page Number 1
5 – ABOUT THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP ON IMMUNISATION:
Prelims Specific Topic
- About NTAGI:
- In 2001, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) issued an order establishing it.
- The NTAGI, as India’s top immunization advisory council, advises the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on vaccination and immunization services for the country’s successful control of vaccine-preventable diseases.
- India’s NTAGI fills a gap in decision-making on the introduction of new vaccines and the expansion of the Universal Immunization Program (UIP).
- NTAGI’s role and membership have grown throughout time to meet the changing demands and goals of the Indian government.
- A Standing Technical Sub-Committee is part of the NTAGI (STSC).
- The STSC is in charge of conducting a technical examination of scientific evidence on vaccination policy and programs.
- The NTAGI drafts final recommendations based on the STSC’s scientific review as well as any other relevant material.
- Source – The Hindu – 08/01/22 – Page Number 10