DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS
16 JULY 2022
|. No.||Topic Name||Prelims/Mains|
|1.||S 400 Missile System||Prelims & Mains|
|2.||NIRF Rankings||Prelims & Mains|
|3.||DTP Vaccine||Prelims Specific Topic|
|4.||Rafale Jets||Prelims Specific Topic|
1 – S 400 Missile System:
Topic – Missile Technology/Science and Technology
- In order to help deter aggressors like China, the US House of Representatives approved a legislative amendment by voice vote that grants India a relief from the harsh CAATSA sanctions in exchange for its acquisition of the S-400 missile defence system from Russia.
- S-400 missile system contract between Russia and India:
- India and Russia agreed to a $5 billion purchase agreement in October 2018 for five S-400 air defence missile systems.
- Despite a warning from the then-Trump administration that moving through with the agreement would result in U.S. penalties, India had proceeded forward with it.
- For the purchase of the S-400 missile systems, the Biden administration has not yet specified whether it will subject India to sanctions under the terms of the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA).
- A 2017 U.S. statute known as CAATSA gives the administration the power to impose penalties on Iran, North Korea, and Russia.
- The bill allows the United States to slap penalties on nations that trade with the three countries as well.
- When compared to the US missile systems on offer, the S-400’s diverse, precise, and multifaceted capabilities won out.
- Specifications for the S-400 system:
- The multifunctional radar and autonomous detection and targeting systems in the S-400 Missile System are combined.
- It is an S-300 family improvement and a transportable surface-to-air missile system (SAM) created by Russia.
- It is regarded to be far more deadly than the US-developed Terminal High Altitude Area Defence (THAAD) System, making it the most dangerous operationally deployed modern long-range SAM (MLR SAM) in the world.
- Along with command and control missiles, it also has launchers for anti-air missiles.
- The system can engage any airborne target within a 400 km range at a height of up to 30 km, including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), ballistic and cruise missiles.
- Data can also be sent between the system and other defence systems including the SA-12, SA-23, and S-300.
- Within a 600km radius, the radar of the S-400 can identify and track aircraft, rotorcraft, cruise missiles, guided missiles, drones, and ballistic rockets.
- The system has the ability to engage six targets at once while tracking 100 airborne targets.
Source – The Indian Express
2 – NIRF Rankings:
Topic – Education related issues
- According to the seventh edition of the National Institutional Ranking Framework, which was published on Friday, the Indian Institute of Technology Madras is the best institution of higher learning in the nation overall and for engineering education.
- Launch: In September 2015, the Ministry of Education (formerly the Ministry of Human Resource Development) authorised the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF).
- The government has never attempted to rank Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the nation.
- All government-run educational institutions are required to participate in NIRF as of 2018.
- Evaluation based on Five Parameters:
- Graduation outcomes (GO), outreach and inclusivity (OI), teaching, learning, and resources (TLR), research, and professional practise (RP), and peer perception.
- Eleven categories have been identified:
- The top institutions in 11 different categories—including universities, engineering, colleges, medicine, business, management, pharmacy, law, architecture, dental, and research—are included.
- Purpose of release:
- The Times Higher Education’s and QS World University Rankings’ subjective ranking methodology India started its own HEI ranking system modelled after the Shanghai Rankings as a result of the World University Ranking.
- NIRF has been around for six years, yet it still solely ranks Indian HEIs, whereas Shanghai Rankings have been international from the start.
- Making NIRF a global league table is the organization’s long-term goal.
Source – The Hindu
3 – DTP Vaccine:
Topic – Health related issues
- According to official data released by the WHO and UNICEF, the number of children in India who were either unvaccinated or missed their first dose of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) combined vaccine doubled as a result of the pandemic, going from 1.4 million in 2019 to 2.7 million in 2021. This occurred as the world experienced the largest sustained decline in childhood vaccinations in roughly 30 years.
- Diptheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis are three infectious diseases that the DTP vaccine helps to prevent against.
- Uses of the DTP vaccine:
- As previously established, the DTP immunisation offers defence against three contagious diseases:
- Diptheria: This illness has a significant mortality rate. Among the symptoms is the development of a membrane that covers the tonsils and upper region of the throat and makes breathing challenging. From 1998 to 2008, India was responsible for between 19 and 84 percent of all cases worldwide. Inadequate immunisation campaigns and filthy circumstances in urban areas make it difficult to totally eradicate the disease, even though the numbers have decreased in recent years.
- Tetanus: often known as lockjaw, is a condition that impairs motor function and results in excruciating muscle contractions. Frequently, the illness is fatal. Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus, or MNT, is a variation that frequently affects babies. A significant factor in the frequency of MNT in India is the lack of access to prenatal and postnatal care.
- Pertussis: Whooping cough is the common name for the disease pertussis, which is named after the characteristic cough pattern, which begins with a deep inhalation, is followed by a series of quick, short coughs that continue until the air is expelled from the lungs, and ends with a long, shrill whooping inhalation. Because their immune systems are still developing, young children are most negatively impacted by infectious illnesses.
- What components make into a DTP Vaccine?
- The DTP vaccine includes diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids that have been adsorbed. It is made of a sterile, isotonic sodium chloride solution with sodium phosphate buffer to regulate pH. After shaking, the vaccine turns into a cloudy liquid with a whitish-grey hue. The combination vaccines, ActHIB® or OmniHIB, have a whitish appearance when used to reconstitute the Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate).
- Cultures of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are produced in a customised Mueller and Miller medium. Cultures of Clostridium tetani are cultivated in a medium based on peptone. Formaldehyde detoxifies both pollutants. Serial ammonium sulphate fractionation and diafiltration are used to separate the detoxified components for further purification.
- Side Effects of the DTP vaccine
- Itching, redness, and discomfort at the injection site
- reduced appetite
- Convulsions and vomiting are infrequent.
- For children younger than seven years old, the recommended initial series of DTP immunizations consists of four intramuscular injections of 0.5 mL each. The first dose is often given at two months of age, however it can be administered as early as six weeks old and up until the sixth birthday.
Source – The Indian Express
4 – Rafale Jets:
Topic – Internal Security related issues
- The 36 Rafale fighter jets have all been delivered to India, according to Emmanuel Lenain, the French ambassador to India, who was speaking on Thursday outside of ceremonies for French National Day.
- About Rafales:
- The Rafale is a French twin-engine, multipurpose fighter jet developed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation. It was first flown in 2001 and is used by both the French Air Force and the French Navy for carrier-based operations.
- After a nearly seven-year exercise to obtain 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) for the Indian Air Force did not succeed, India signed a Rs 59,000 crore contract in 2016 to purchase 36 Rafale planes from French aerospace company Dassault Aviation.
- Disagreements regarding production in India caused the MMRCA agreement to be put on hold.
- Rafale has much improved technology compared to the previous agreement, or MMRCA, has a reduced life cycle cost, and is built to India’s specific military requirements.
- Air Supremacy: The Rafale is designed to execute air superiority, interdiction (act of disrupting), aerial reconnaissance (observing to locate an enemy), ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike, and nuclear deterrence missions. It is outfitted with a broad variety of weaponry.
- Wide Range of Weapons: The MICA weapons system, Scalp cruise missiles, and Meteor missiles will make up the bulk of the Rafale jets’ arsenal.
- It is the next-generation Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile (BVRAAM), which will completely change how air-to-air warfare is conducted.
- From 150 km away, the Meteor missile can intercept hostile aircraft. Before the hostile aircraft ever approaches the Indian aircraft, it can destroy them.
- Cruise Missiles SCALP: 300 kilometres away, it can still hit targets.
- MICA Missile System: This air-to-air missile is incredibly adaptable. It has a built-in radar seeker and can shoot for both short- and long-range targets up to a distance of 100 km.
- Mirages, which are now in service with the IAF, and Rafales both use it as their main armament.
- Target: Air to Air They are among the deadliest fighter jets operating today due to their capacity to safely strike land targets 300 km inside of enemy territory and engage air-to-air targets up to 150 km away.
- Flight Hours: The aircraft has completed 30,000 flights.
- Relevance To India:
- Joint Strategic Vision: The Rafale would help the India-France cooperation in the Indian Ocean region achieve its goal of reducing overflights and the threat of WMDs in the region.
- Enhancement of Air Combat Capabilities: This will help India’s air combat capabilities, especially when it comes to dealing with adversarial neighbours like China and Pakistan.
- Unparalleled Capabilities: In recent air combat missions in Afghanistan, Libya, Mali, Iraq, and Syria, the aircraft demonstrated its unmatched capabilities.
- After France, Egypt, and Qatar, India is the fourth nation to have the Rafale strategic platform.
- In order to integrate with the Rafale planes, the Indian Air Force is also in the process of purchasing a next generation medium-range modular air-to-ground weapon system called Hammer.
- The French defence giant Safran has created a precision-guided missile called The Hammer (Highly Agile Modular Munition Extended Range).
- Rafales could change the game for India once all 36 planes are enlisted in the Indian Air Force because no aircraft in the region can compete with their better kinematic performance and potent electronic warfare equipment.
- The stealth F-35 and F-22 aircraft from the USA are frequently contrasted with the Rafale jet.
- Border conflict with China: It is significantly more sophisticated and deadly than the fighter jets that China currently has at its disposal, the J-20. In light of this, it unquestionably improves India’s defence readiness, particularly during times of border conflict with China.
- Related worries:
- In many aspects, the introduction of Rafale aircraft will change the game, but it might not be enough to overcome the difficulties the Indian Air Force will confront in the near future:
- The IAF’s Fighter Jet Strength is Declining: The IAF’s fighter squadrons had shrunk to a worrying 31 from the minimum authorised size of at least 42, prompting concern that the IAF’s combat capacity was eroding.
- Its fleet currently consists of 30 fighter jet squadrons.
- Therefore, increasing the authorised strength of fighter squadrons as soon as possible is one of the primary areas of concentration.
- The Pakistan Air Force will have 27 fighter squadrons by 2023, whereas China’s PLA Air Force is estimated to have the ability to support at least 42 squadrons against India.
- India must therefore keep an eye on events in the North and West as both China and Pakistan, its enemies, are constantly building up and modernising their stockpiles.
- Two Front Challenge: Despite the IAF’s ambition to have 45 fighter squadrons for a two-front conflict (a war with China and Pakistan), the last time it possessed the full complement of 42 squadrons allowed by law was in 2002, following the Parliament terror assault.
- Five squadrons of outdated Russian MiG aircraft have since been deactivated, continuing a trend in which the numbers have gradually decreased since then.
- Similar to this, the IAF requested information from foreign manufacturers including Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Airbus Defence and Space, Russian Aircraft Corporation, and Sukhoi Company in June 2018 for 114 multirole fighters. Within 12 years of the contract, it intends to introduce the aircraft. A request for proposals is still awaited, though.
Source – The Hindu