25 JULY 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About Monkeypox Prelims & Mains
2.    Details of Marsburg Virus Disease Prelims & Mains
3.    About Wind Energy in India Prelims & Mains
4.    Details of Snow Leopard Prelims Specific Topic


1 – About Monkeypox: 


Topic – Health related issues

  • Monkeypox is a zoonosis, or disease that is transmitted from unwell animals to humans.
  • The monkeypox virus has been discovered in squirrels, dormice, rats collected from Gambian woods, and many kinds of monkeys.
  • Causes:
  • African rodents and monkeys are believed to transmit and contract monkeypox despite the lack of a recognised natural reservoir.
  • Occurrence:
  • According to the WHO, infections frequently occur close to tropical rainforests where the animals that carry the virus dwell.
  • The infection was first discovered in 1958 following two outbreaks of a pox-like sickness in colonies of monkeys held for research, hence the name “monkeypox.”
  • Infection of a person was first noted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1970. (DRC).
  • The WHO has received confirmed reports of monkeypox in people from 15 countries across four continents.
  • Transmission:
  • Transmission can occur by contact with bodily fluids, ulcers on the skin or on internal mucosal surfaces, including those in the mouth and throat, respiratory droplets, and contaminated objects.
  • Six generations have been documented as the longest chain of transmission, although human-to-human transmission is uncommon (meaning the last person to be infected in this chain was six links away from the original sick person).
  • What separates the small pox from the monkey pox?
  • The orthopoxvirus genus, which also includes the virus that causes monkeypox, includes the variola virus, which causes smallpox, and the vaccinia virus, which was used in the smallpox vaccine.
  • Compared to smallpox, monkeypox symptoms are less severe.
  • Furthermore, the symptoms of the two disorders vary.
  • Monkeypox is still present in some regions of Central and West Africa and has occasionally been seen abroad, despite the fact that smallpox was entirely eradicated by vaccination in 1980.
  • What symptoms and remedies are there for the illness?
  • The initial signs of monkey pox include fatigue, fever, headache, backache, and muscle aches.
  • It also causes lymphadenopathy, which is an additional disease not seen in smallpox.
  • Monkeypox normally takes 7 to 14 days to incubate, but it can take up to 21 days.
  • Stage 1: One to three days after the onset of a fever, a rash that begins on the face and spreads to other regions of the body occurs.
  • The skin eruption stage is characterised by the hardening of lesions, their filling with a clear fluid and later pus, and the formation of scabs or crusts. It can last for two to four weeks.
  • Mortality: In reported cases, the mortality rate for patients has ranged from 0% to 11%, with mortality rates for young children being higher.
  • Although the WHO recommends supportive care depending on symptoms, there is no effective, safe treatment for monkeypox.
  • Antivirals, the smallpox vaccination, and vaccine immune globulin (VIG) can all be used to control an outbreak of monkeypox in the US.
  • Steps to Take:
  • To prevent contracting the monkeypox virus, a number of precautions can be followed.
  • Stay away from any animals that might be contaminated.
  • Keep your hands off any bedding or other objects that have been in contact with a sick animal.
  • Distinguish infected patients from those who could catch the illness.
  • Wash your hands properly after interacting with infected people or animals.
  • Use personal protection equipment (PPE) when delivering patient care.

Source  The Indian Express

2 – Details Marsburg Virus Disease:


Topic – Health related issues

  • About:
  • The extremely deadly Marburg virus, which is carried by bats and has an 88 percent mortality rate, is what causes hemorrhagic fever.
  • It is a member of the same disease family as the Ebola virus.
  • Due to two big outbreaks that occurred concurrently in Marburg, Frankfurt, Belgrade, Serbia, as well as in Germany and Germany, the disease was first discovered in 1967.
  • The infection was connected to research using African green monkeys brought in from Uganda (Cercopithecus aethiops).
  • Since then, outbreaks and lone cases have been reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda.
  • There have been 12 notable Marburg outbreaks since 1967, with most of them taking place in southern and eastern Africa.
  • Human infections:
  • Human infection with the Marburg virus disease results from prolonged exposure to mines or caves containing Rousettus bat populations.
  • Megabats of the genus Rousettus that originated in the Old World. They are also known as fruit bats with dog faces and flying foxes.
  • Transmission:
  • After becoming infected, a person can spread the Marburg virus to another person by coming into direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of an infected person, as well as by coming into contact with contaminated surfaces and materials (through cuts in the skin or ruptured mucous membranes) (like bedding and clothing).
  • Symptoms:
  • headaches, nausea that is bloody, and bleeding from numerous orifices.
  • The symptoms can get worse over time and include jaundice, pancreatic inflammation, significant weight loss, liver failure, substantial bleeding, and numerous organ dysfunction.
  • Diagnosis:
  • The disease’s symptoms are similar to those of typhoid fever and malaria, making a diagnosis difficult.
  • However, tests like ELISA and PCR, which use an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, can be used to confirm a condition.
  • Treatment:
  • There is no approved vaccine or known treatment for Marburg hemorrhagic fever. It is advisable to use hospital-based supportive therapy.
  • Maintaining the patient’s blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and electrolyte balance is part of supportive hospital therapy, which also comprises treating any aggravated infections and replenishing lost blood and clotting components.

Source  The Hindu

3 – About Wind Energy in India:


Topic – Renewable Energy Sector

  • What is Wind Energy:
  • Wind power or wind energy is the term for the process of using wind turbines to produce electricity. A well-liked, clean, renewable energy source with a significantly smaller carbon footprint is wind energy. The capacity of India to produce wind energy has significantly increased in recent years. As of 30 November 2021, the total installed wind power capacity was 40 GW, ranking as the fourth-highest installed wind power capacity in the world. The most wind power potential is found in the Southern, Western, and Northern regions. You will learn about Wind Energy in India from this article, which will help you with your UPSC Civil Service exam geography preparation.
  • How Does Wind Energy Produce Power?
  • The wind rotates a turbine’s blades, which resemble propellers, around a rotor, which spins a generator, which produces power.
  • Wind power or wind energy is the term for the process of using wind turbines to produce electricity.
  • In the past, wind power has been harnessed using sails, windmills, and windpumps.
  • Wind turbines transform the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy.
  • The lift that the wind gives the blades causes them to revolve (similar to the effect on aeroplane wings).
  • The driving shaft that turns an electric generator, which produces electricity, is connected to the blades.
  • Wind park or farm:
  • A group of wind turbines used to produce electricity in one location is referred to as a wind farm, wind park, wind power station, or wind power plant.
  • The size of wind farms can range from a few dozen to several hundred turbines dispersed over a broad region.
  • Types:
  • Onshore:
  • Wind turbines use the energy of moving air to produce electricity.
  • On land, there are wind turbines known as onshore.
  • Offshore:
  • Offshore wind farms are situated in freshwater or far from land.
  • While a floating wind turbine is built in deeper waters with its base anchored to the seabed, a fixed-foundation wind turbine is built in shallow water.
  • The construction of floating wind farms is still in its early phases.
  • A minimum of 200 nautical miles must separate offshore wind farms from the shoreline, and they must be 50 feet underwater.
  • Cables buried in the seabed transport electricity produced by offshore wind turbines back to land.
  • Indian Wind Energy Situation:
  • India’s ability to generate wind energy has considerably expanded in recent years.
  • As of 30 November 2021, the total installed wind power capacity was 40 GW, ranking as the fourth biggest installed wind power capacity in the world.
  • The most wind power potential is found in the Southern, Western, and Northern regions.
  • Wind generation saw a compound annual growth rate between 2010 and 2020 of 11.39 percent, while installed capacity saw a CAGR of 8.78 percent.
  • According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), India’s 7,600 km of coastline has the potential to produce 127 GW of offshore wind energy.
  • The National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) estimates that there is a total wind energy potential of 302 GW at a hub height of 100 metres.
  • More than 95% of the resources that can be used for commerce are found in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.
  • By 2022 and 2030, respectively, the Union’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) wants to install 5 GW and 30 GW of offshore wind, respectively.
  • Governmental Programs: 
  • National Policy for Wind-Solar Hybrids:
  • The major objective is to establish a framework for the promotion of sizable grid-connected wind-solar PV hybrid systems to make the best and most economical use of available wind and solar resources, as well as of the land and related transmission facilities.
  • A national policy for offshore wind energy:
  • In October 2015, the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy was announced.
  • The Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which runs for 7600 kilometres along the Indian coastline, is where offshore wind energy development will take place.

Source – The Indian Express

4  – About Snow Leopard:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • About Snow Leopard:
  • Its scientific designation is Panthera uncia.
  • In the mountains of Central Asia, snow leopards live.
  • There may only be 3,920 to 6,390 snow leopards left in the wild.
  • The twelve countries that make up the range include Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
  • Conservation Status:
  • Snow leopards were previously classified as an endangered species, however later that year their classification was altered to vulnerable.
  • Initiatives for national conservation:
  • 450–500 snow leopards are thought to reside in India, and they can be sighted in the upper Himalayan regions of the country.
  • India has been preserving snow leopards and their habitats through the Project Snow Leopard programme (PSL).
  • India has continued to take part in the Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection (GSLEP) Program since 2013.
  • Three vast landscapes in India have been declared for preservation: Khangchendzonga-Tawang, which spans Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh; Nanda Devi-Gangotri; and Hemis-Spiti, which covers Ladakh and Himachal Pradesh.
  • The snow leopard is one of 22 highly endangered species on the Ministry of Environment, Forestry & Climate Change’s list for its recovery effort.
  • Himalaya in safety: The Global Environment Facility (GEF) and UNDP provided funding for the initiative to protect high-altitude biodiversity and reduce local communities’ dependency on the natural ecosystem (UNDP). This effort is presently located in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim, the four states that make up the snow leopard’s range.
  • A community-wide volunteer programme called “HimalSanrakshak” aims to safeguard snow leopards.
  • Efforts for global conservation:
  • The Bishkek Declaration, which set a goal in 2013 to protect at least 20 snow leopard habitats with viable populations by 2020, prompted the development of the Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection Program. (GSLEP). Since then, October 23 has been set aside as International Snow Leopard Day each year.
  • The Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection Programme (GSLEP) was also launched on the same day. Its objective is to address problems associated with high-mountain development by using snow leopard conservation as its focal point.
  • Concerns regarding conservation:
  • A rise in poaching, the destruction of habitats, and animosity toward communities

Source  The Hindu