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TOPIC : GS 3 Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

Preparing for disaster management prior to flood

What is the news?

  • Current monsoon season has given us a warning signal and an opportunity to prepare well on disaster management with respect to floods and landslides.

Observations

  • For most of last week, all-India rainfall has been over 50% more than what is normal for this time of the year. 
  • Konkan coast and the southern peninsula have been seeing instances of extreme rainfall.

Causes:

  • Accumulating that there is a distinctive change in climate patterns.
  • The frequency and the strength of cyclones over the Arabian Sea have increased in the last two decades (52% increase).
  • Studies show that a heating globe has increased atmospheric moisture levels, contributing to short, intense spells of rains.
  • The interaction between warming, rainfall and temperature is complex and variables such as aerosol emissions, particulate matter pollution, agriculture and forestry patterns must be accounted for.

Consequences:

Extreme events  bursts of torrential localised rainfall and prolonged droughts and heat waves are likely to increase.

National Water Policy

  • Master plan for flood control and management for each flood prone basin.
  • Adequate flood-cushion to facilitate better flood management.
  • While physical flood protection works like embankments and dykes will continue to be necessary, increased emphasis should be laid on non-structural measures such as flood forecasting and warning, flood plain zoning and flood proofing for the minimisation of losses and to reduce the recurring expenditure on flood relief.
  • Strict regulation of settlements and economic activity in the flood plain zones along with flood proofing.
  • Inflow forecasting to reservoirs should be instituted for their effective regulation.

Mains Questions

What are the measures taken for  preparing for disaster management prior to flood ?

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Mangalore/we-are-ready-to-handle-natural-disasters/article35436597.ece

PRELIMS PUNCHERS

  1. Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary

It is also known as Pakshi Kashi of Karnataka, is a bird sanctuary in the Mandya District of the state of Karnataka in India. It is the largest bird sanctuary in the state, and comprises six islets on the banks of the Kaveri River. It is islets were formed when an embankment across the Kaveri River was built between 1645 and 1648 by the then king of Mysore, Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar. These islets, originally numbering 25, soon started attracting birds.

Of these, the painted stork, Asian openbill stork, common spoonbill, woolly-necked stork, black-headed ibis, lesser whistling duck, Indian shag, stork-billed kingfisher, egret, cormorant, Oriental darter, spot-billed pelican and heron breed at Ranganathittu regularly. The great stone plover, and river tern also nest there, while the park is also home to a large flock of streak-throated swallows.[

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/post-lockdown-ranganathittu-sanctuary-reopens-for-visitors/article35196380.ece

  1. Rudreswara Temple (Ramappa Temple) at Palampet, Warangal, Telangana inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List

Rudreshwara, popularly known as Ramappa Temple, is located in the village of Palampet north-east of Hyderabad, in the State of Telangana. It is the main Shiva temple in a walled complex built during the Kakatiyan period  under rulers Rudradeva and Recharla Rudra. Construction of the sandstone temple began in 1213 CE and is believed to have continued over some 40 years.

The building features decorated beams and pillars of carved granite and dolerite with a distinctive and pyramidal Vimana (horizontally stepped tower) made of lightweight porous bricks, so-called ‘floating bricks’, which reduced the weight of the roof structures. The temple’s sculptures of high artistic quality illustrate regional dance customs and Kakatiyan culture.

Located at the foothills of a forested area and amidst agricultural fields, close to the shores of the Ramappa Cheruvu, a Kakatiya-built water reservoir, the choice of setting for the edifice followed the ideology and practice sanctioned in dharmic texts that temples are to be constructed to form an integral part of a natural setting, including hills, forests, springs, streams, lakes, catchment areas, and agricultural lands.

Sources : https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1738864

  1. Hot Springs

It  is a campsite and the location of an Indian border checkpost in the Chang Chenmo River valley in Ladakh near the disputed border with China. It is so named because there is a hot spring at this location. The Line of Actual Control near Kongka Pass is only 3 kilometres

Geologist Frederic Drew states that the Chang Chenmo river flows on a barren gravel bed, with occasional alluvial patches where vegetation is found. Hot Springs is one such location. In the vicinity are also other such patches, named Pamzal, Tsogstsalu and Gogra. They were historical halting places for travellers and trading caravans, with a supply of water, fuel and fodder. Nomadic Ladakhi graziers also used them for grazing cattle. Gogra is actually in a branch valley of the Changchenmo watered by the Khugrang River, northwest of Hot Springs. The Changlung River flows in from the northeast to join Khugrang at this location.

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/deal-for-disengagement-at-gogra-hot-springs-in-sight-at-12th-round-of-india-china-corps-commander-level-talks/article35524796.ece

  1. The Indian vulture

It  is an Old World vulture native to India, Pakistan and Nepal. It has been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2002, as the population severely declined. Indian vultures died of kidney failure caused by diclofenac poisoning. It breeds mainly on hilly crags in central and peninsular India. The slender-billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris in the northern part of its range is considered a separate species.

The Indian vulture and the white-rumped vulture, G. bengalensis species have suffered a 99%–97% population decrease in Bangladesh, Pakistan and India. Between 2000-2007 annual decline rates of this species and the slender-billed vulture averaged over sixteen percent. Two captive Himalayan griffons were released in June, 2016 from Jatayu Conservation Breeding Centre, Pinjore as part of Asia’s first vulture re-introduction program

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/vulture-population-on-the-rise-in-tiger-reserve/article35530665.ece

PRELIMS QUESTIONS

  1. Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary is in which of the following state
  2. Karnataka
  3. Andhra Pradesh
  4. Telangana
  5. Tamil Nadu

Answer :  A

It is also known as Pakshi Kashi of Karnataka, is a bird sanctuary in the Mandya District of the state of Karnataka in India. It is the largest bird sanctuary in the state, and comprises six islets on the banks of the Kaveri River. It is islets were formed when an embankment across the Kaveri River was built between 1645 and 1648 by the then king of Mysore, Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar. These islets, originally numbering 25, soon started attracting birds.

Of these, the painted stork, Asian openbill stork, common spoonbill, woolly-necked stork, black-headed ibis, lesser whistling duck, Indian shag, stork-billed kingfisher, egret, cormorant, Oriental darter, spot-billed pelican and heron breed at Ranganathittu regularly. The great stone plover, and river tern also nest there, while the park is also home to a large flock of streak-throated swallows.

  1. Consider the following with regard Rudreswara Temple
  2. It is located in the state of Karnataka
  3. It is developed during the period of Hoysala Period

Select the correct statement using code given below.

(a). 1only       (b) 2 only

(c).Both       (d). None of above

Answer: D

Rudreshwara, popularly known as Ramappa Temple, is located in the village of Palampet north-east of Hyderabad, in the State of Telangana. It is the main Shiva temple in a walled complex built during the Kakatiyan period  under rulers Rudradeva and Recharla Rudra. Construction of the sandstone temple began in 1213 CE and is believed to have continued over some 40 years.

The building features decorated beams and pillars of carved granite and dolerite with a distinctive and pyramidal Vimana (horizontally stepped tower) made of lightweight porous bricks, so-called ‘floating bricks’, which reduced the weight of the roof structures. The temple’s sculptures of high artistic quality illustrate regional dance customs and Kakatiyan culture.

Located at the foothills of a forested area and amidst agricultural fields, close to the shores of the Ramappa Cheruvu, a Kakatiya-built water reservoir, the choice of setting for the edifice followed the ideology and practice sanctioned in dharmic texts that temples are to be constructed to form an integral part of a natural setting, including hills, forests, springs, streams, lakes, catchment areas, and agricultural lands.

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