14 JUNE 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
3.    DETAILS OF AURORA Prelims & Mains
4.    ABOUT WORLD HAEMOPHILIA DAY Prelims Specific Topic
5.    DETAILS OF THE SOLOMAN ISLANDS Prelims Specific Topic




International Relations

  • Background:
  • The desire for a method to ensure that permanent members of the UNSC use their veto powers less frequently is a long-standing one.
  • After Russia’s recent invasion of Ukraine, it has recently garnered power and support from significant players.
  • Moscow’s veto power has stifled action in the UN Security Council, which is intended to intervene in such disputes as a guarantor of world peace, as stipulated by the UN Charter.
  • A requirement for:
  • Several countries have asked for UNSC reforms, alleging that the body’s “limited representation” has prevented it from fulfilling its obligations in ensuring global peace and security.
  • The veto power is frequently mentioned in attempts to alter the Security Council. India has stated repeatedly that the subject of UNSC expansion should not be kept captive by the veto power discussion.
  • What is the meaning of veto power:
  • The five permanent members of the UN Security Council have the right to veto (block) any “substantive” resolution.
  • Article 27 of the United Nations Charter establishes the veto power.
  • When and how does the veto power come into play:
  • Each member of the UNSC is entitled to one vote.
  • On procedural matters, the UNSC must make decisions by a majority vote of nine members.
  • All other decisions of the UNSC are taken by an affirmative vote of nine members, including the permanent members’ concurring votes.
  • This means that a vote against a draught resolution from any of the permanent members will prevent it from being adopted.
  • A permanent member who votes no or does not vote does not prevent a resolution from being passed.
  • Arguments for and against the veto include the following:
  • Supporters of veto power see it as a safeguard against “snap” military operations and a promoter of international stability.
  • However, some argue that the veto is the UN’s most undemocratic feature, as well as the primary source of inaction on war crimes and crimes against humanity, because it essentially precludes the UN from taking action against permanent members and their supporters.
  • The five permanent members, according to Amnesty International, have used their veto to “advance their political self-interest or geopolitical interest over the purpose of protecting civilians.”
  • The Case for India’s Permanent Membership in the United Nations Security Council:
  • India is a founding member of the United Nations.
  • Most importantly, India has nearly twice as many peacekeepers on the ground as the other P5 countries.
  • India is also the world’s largest democracy and the world’s second-most populated nation.
  • India’s status as a Nuclear Weapons State (NWS) was achieved in May 1998, making it a natural claimant as a permanent member, among the other permanent members who are all Nuclear Weapon States.
  • As seen by its leadership role in the Non-Aligned Movement and the G-77 grouping, India is the unquestioned leader of Third World countries.
  • Source – The Hindu



International Relations

  • What exactly is a UNESCO World Heritage Site:
  • The United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, often known as UNESCO, have formally recognised these places. The World Heritage sites, according to UNESCO, are vital for humanity and have cultural and physical significance.
  • The list is kept by the international World Heritage Programme, which is overseen by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, which is made up of 21 UNESCO member nations elected by the General Assembly.
  • Each World Heritage Site remains part of the legal territory of the state in which it is located, and UNESCO believes that preserving each site is in the best interests of the international community.
  • Eligibility:
  • A World Heritage Site must be an existing landmark that is distinctive in some way as a geographically and historically recognisable area with outstanding cultural or physical significance in order to be chosen.
  • India’s heritage sites include:
  • There are 40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India.
  • Dholavira, a Harappan city in Gujarat, has been designated as India’s 40th world heritage site.
  • Telangana’s Ramappa Temple was India’s 39th World Heritage Site.
  • Sikkim’s Khangchendzonga National Park was named India’s first and only “Mixed World Heritage Site.
  • Source – The Hindu 




  • What exactly is Aurora:
  • An aurora is a light show in the sky that is most commonly seen at high latitudes (Arctic and Antarctic). Polar light is another name for it.
  • Types:
  • The aurora borealis and aurora australis, sometimes known as the northern and southern lights, are the two types
  • What are the locations where they occur:
  • They are most prevalent at high northern and southern latitudes, less common in the middle latitudes, and rarely observed near the equator.
  • Colors:
  • While auroras are most commonly a milky greenish colour, they can also be red, blue, violet, pink, or white. These colours emerge in a variety of shapes that are constantly changing.
  • The science behind their occurrence is as follows:
  • Auroras are a visually stunning indicator that our planet is electrically connected to the Sun. The Sun’s energy triggers these light shows, which are fuelled by electrically charged particles trapped in Earth’s magnetic field.
  • Collisions between fast-moving electrons from space and oxygen and nitrogen in Earth’s upper atmosphere generate the usual aurora.
  • The electrons, which originate in the Earth’s magnetosphere, an area of space governed by the magnetic field of the planet, transfer their energy to the oxygen and nitrogen atoms and molecules, causing them to become “stimulated.”
  • When gases return to their original state, photons, or little bursts of energy in the form of light, are released.
  • The oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere can release enough light for the eye to see when a significant number of electrons from the magnetosphere assault the atmosphere, giving us stunning auroral displays.
  • Where do they come from:
  • They originate at altitudes ranging from 100 to more than 400 kilometres.
  • Why are auroras of various hues and shapes:
  • The hue of the aurora is determined by whether gas is stimulated by the electrons — oxygen or nitrogen — and how excited it becomes. The colour is also determined by how rapidly the electrons are travelling or how much energy they have when they collide.
  • High-energy electrons allow oxygen to generate green light (the aurora’s most well-known colour), whereas low-energy electrons cause red light. Nitrogen emits a blue light in general.
  • Purples, pinks, and whites can be created by combining these hues. Ultraviolet light is emitted by oxygen and nitrogen, which can be detected by sophisticated satellite cameras.
  • Effects:
  • Communication, radio, and electricity lines are all affected by auroras.
  • It’s also worth noting that the Sun’s energy, in the form of solar wind, is at the heart of the whole thing.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • Every year on April 17th, World Haemophilia Day is observed to raise awareness of haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders.
  • Frank Schnabel, the founder of the World Federation of Haemophilia, is honoured on this day (WHF).
  • “Access for All: Partnership, Policy, and Progress” is the topic for this year (2022). Getting involved with your government and incorporating inherited bleeding diseases into national policy.”
  • Haemophilia is a medical disorder in which the capacity of blood to clot is substantially impaired, resulting in extensive bleeding from even slight injuries.
  • Source – The Hindu













Prelims Specific Topic


  • The Solomon Islands are a Melanesia country east of Papua New Guinea with about 990 islands. Honiara, on the island of Guadalcanal, is the capital.
  • Melanesian people have lived on the Solomon Islands for at least 30,000 years.
  • Melanesia is home to a double chain of volcanic islands and coral atolls.


  • Source à The Hindu