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17 JUNE 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
5.    URJA PRAVAHA Prelims Specific Topic




International Relations

  • What exactly is the problem:
  • The British were the first to inhabit West Falkland in 1765, but the Spanish drove them out in 1770.
  • After a threat of war, the British outpost on West Falkland was rebuilt in 1771, but they withdrew from the island in 1774 for economic reasons, without relinquishing their claim to the Falklands.
  • Until 1811, Spain had a presence on East Falkland (which it dubbed Soledad Island).
  • Argentina’s government, which had gained independence from Spain in 1816, declared sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in 1820.
  • A British civilian lieutenant governor was appointed to the Falklands in 1841.
  • Argentina’s military government attacked the Falkland Islands in February 1982. The Falkland Islands War began as a result of this act.
  • The conflict came to an end when Argentine forces surrendered at Stanley to British troops who had forcibly retaken the islands.
  • In March 2013, islanders overwhelmingly chose to remain a British overseas territory in a referendum.
  • Despite wars and UN debates, the topic of sovereignty continues to be a source of dispute.
  • Location:
  • The Falkland Islands are a British overseas territory located in the southwest Atlantic Ocean at South America’s southernmost point.
  • Both the southern and western hemispheres of the Earth are home to this planet.
  • They’re also known as the Malvinas Islands.
  • Source – The Hindu



Election Related Issues

  • Challenges:
  • Despite the existence of a legislation, politicians continue to defect from one party to another.
  • Anti-defection proceedings have been dragged out for years by speakers, chairpersons, and the courts.
  • In anti-defection matters, the law is unclear about the timeline for action by the House Chairperson or Speaker.
  • What is the definition of anti-defection legislation:
  • It is covered by the Indian Constitution’s Tenth Schedule:
  • It describes the circumstances in which a legislator’s change of political party triggers legal action.
  • The 52nd Amendment Act of 1985 added it to the Constitution.
  • It also covers circumstances where an independent MLA joins a political party after the election.
  • In the case of an MP or MLA switching political party, the law covers the following possibilities. These are some of them:
  • When a member elected on a political party’s ticket “voluntarily gives up” party membership or votes in the House against the party’s desires.
  • When an independent candidate wins a seat in the legislature and then joins a political party after the election.
  • When a lawmaker switches (or joins) a political party, he or she loses their position in the legislature.
  • In the event of nominated MPs, the law gives them six months after being nominated to join a political party. If they join a political party after that time, they risk losing their House seat.
  • Disqualification-related issues:
  • The presiding officer of the legislature has the authority to rule on an MP’s or MLA’s disqualification under the anti-defection law.
  • The statute does not establish a deadline for making such a judgement.
  • The Supreme Court ruled last year that anti-defection charges should be decided within three months by Speakers.
  • Legislators, on the other hand, can switch parties without risking disqualification in certain conditions. Exceptions:
  • The law permits a political party to combine with or into another if at least two-thirds of its legislators support the merger.
  • If a member willingly puts up his or her membership in his or her political party after being chosen as the presiding officer of the House, he or she will not be disqualified.
  • Laws with loopholes:
  • Those opposed argue that voters elect individuals rather than parties in elections, and hence the Anti-Defection Law is ineffective.
  • In numerous cases, the Speaker (typically a member of the ruling party) has postponed the disqualification decision.
  • A’split’ in a legislature party is not recognised by the amendment; instead, a’merger’ is recognised.
  • Is it possible for the courts to intervene:
  • In some circumstances, courts have become involved in the legislative process.
  • In 1992, a five-judge Supreme Court constitutional bench ruled that the Speaker’s anti-defection law proceedings are analogous to a tribunal and hence subject to judicial scrutiny.
  • The Supreme Court ordered Parliament to change the Constitution in January 2020, taking away the exclusive power of legislative assembly speakers to decide whether legislators should be disqualified or not under the anti-defection provision.
  • The Supreme Court dismissed Manipur minister Thounaojam Shyamkumar Singh from the state government in March 2020, restraining him “from entering the legislative assembly till further instructions” after disqualification petitions against him had been pending before the speaker since 2017.
  • Suggestions:
  • The Election Commission has proposed that it be the deciding authority in cases of defection.
  • Others have suggested that defection petitions should be heard by the President and Governors.
  • The Supreme Court has recommended that Parliament establish an independent panel, led by a retired judge from the higher judiciary, to determine defection cases quickly and fairly.
  • Some observers have stated that the law has failed and that it should be repealed. Former Vice President Hamid Ansari has claimed that it only applies in no-confidence motions to rescue governments.
  • Source – The Hindu



Internal Security Related Issues

  • The origins of the boundary dispute between Assam and Arunachal Pradesh:
  • All of the north-eastern states that were created out of Assam have had boundary conflicts.
  • In 1972, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram were separated from Assam as Union Territories, and then in 1987, they became States.
  • None of the new states recognised the “constitutional boundary” that they claimed was imposed without consultation with tribal stakeholders by the partisan administration of undivided Assam.
  • The problem with Arunachal Pradesh stems from a 1951 report prepared by a sub-committee led by Gopinath Bordoloi, Assam’s first Chief Minister.
  • The dispute:
  • Around 1,200 sites along their 804-kilometer border, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam are at odds.
  • Efforts to resolve the conflict include:
  • In 2006, the Supreme Court established a local border commission, which was chaired by one of its retired judges.
  • This commission suggested in its September 2014 report that Arunachal Pradesh be given back some of the territory transferred in 1951, as well as encouraging both states to establish a medium ground through dialogue. This did not turn out to be a good idea.
  • Source – The Hindu



Environmental Conservation Related Issues

  • Context:
  • Senna spectabilis is an invasive species found predominantly in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve’s woodland sections (NBR).
  • The lack of effective measures to halt the spread of these invasive species is a severe problem for the conservation of Western Ghats wildlife habitats.
  • Concerns:
  • The invasive species has now expanded over the Western Ghats’ most famous wildlife habitats, devastating elephant, deer, gaur, and tiger habitats by displacing native flora.
  • Other plants cannot grow under it due to the species’ allelopathic properties. Allelopathy is a biological phenomena in which one or more biochemicals produced by one organism affect the germination, growth, survival, and reproduction of other species.
  • This has a significant impact on primary productivity on the ground. Under the invasive species, the forest floor is almost bare. Herbivores are robbed of their fodder when grasses and herbs are completely eradicated.
  • Under the invasion, the carrying capacity of forests to sustain wildlife is rapidly dwindling, hastening man-animal conflict.
  • Efforts to get rid of them include:
  • The Kerala Forest Department tried uprooting, girdling, cutting, slicing tree branches, and even testing the use of chemicals to destroy the trees. All of the efforts, however, were in futile. Instead, coppice shoots sprouted from each tree stump that had been cut down. In Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, the scenario is similar.
  • What are the characteristics of invading species:
  • Plants, animals, diseases, and other creatures that are non-native to an ecosystem and can threaten the economy, the environment, or human health are known as invasive alien species.
  • They have a negative influence on biodiversity, including the loss or extinction of native species as a result of competition, predation, or pathogen transmission, as well as the disturbance of local ecosystems and ecological processes.
  • Invasive species have the following effects:
  • Biodiversity loss.
  • Key natural resources are becoming scarcer and of lower quality.
  • Water scarcity.
  • Wildfires and flooding are becoming more common.
  • Overuse of chemicals to control infestations has resulted in pollution.
  • Efforts in this area include:
  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognises the urgent need to combat invasive species’ impact.
  • The issue is especially addressed in Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 and one sentence of UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 – Life on Land.
  • By raising knowledge of strategies to prevent, contain, or eradicate invasive species, the IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) hopes to lessen risks to ecosystems and native species.
  • The Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) and the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRAIS) are two knowledge platforms produced by the IUCN (GRIIS).
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • The Indian Coast Guard has recently commissioned a new vessel, the ‘Urja Pravaha.’
  • It was inducted in Bharuch, Gujarat.
  • Source – The Hindu


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