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04 JUNE 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
2.    NOISE POLLUTION Prelims & Mains
3.    ABOUT EXTRADITION Prelims & Mains
4.    ABOUT VAGSHEER Prelims Specific Topic




Internal Security

  • What exactly are ICCCs?
  • Setting up ICCCs for each city is a critical step in the Smart Cities Mission (SCM).
  • They are intended to allow authorities to keep track of the status of various facilities in real time.
  • They attempt to govern and monitor water and electricity supply, sanitation, traffic flow, integrated building management, city connection, and Internet infrastructure, among other things.
  • These centres will now monitor a variety of other factors and will be linked to the Ministry of Home Affairs’ CCTNS (Crime and Criminal Tracking Networks and Systems) network (MHA).
  • Significance:
  • A smart city’s ICCC serves as a “nerve centre” for operational management. At an aggregated level, it analyses a complicated and massive pool of data sets. It is currently the go-to source for integrated traffic management monitoring, for example.
  • Mission of Smart Cities:
  • In 2015, the Government of India started the Smart Cities Mission.
  • The cities have five years to complete the tasks outlined in the mission, with the first batch of Smart Cities slated to be completed in 2021.
  • The goal is to integrate city activities, make better use of scarce resources, and improve inhabitants’ quality of life.
  • It’s a unique programme run by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • It’s a scheme that’s backed by the government.
  • The four pillars of a smart city are as follows:
  • Infrastructure for social interaction.
  • Infrastructure is the physical infrastructure.
  • Infrastructure of Institutions (including Governance).
  • Infrastructure for the economy.
  • As of June 2021, the following progress has been accomplished under this scheme:
  • 5,924 projects have been tendered, 5,236 work orders have been issued, and 2,665 projects are completely operational out of the total projected projects under this mission.
  • A total of 212 public-private partnership projects totaling Rs 24,964 crore have been launched or completed.
  • There are now 70 smart cities. In the country, its Integrated Command and Control Centres (ICCCs) have been operationalized.
  • Challenges to come:
  • Buildings that are both energy efficient and environmentally friendly have a long way to go.
  • Self-sufficiency for urban bodies.
  • The proportion of people who use public transportation is decreasing, and it must be enhanced to satisfy the demands of growing urbanisation.
  • As the population grows, so does the amount of pollution in the air and the amount of traffic on the roads.
  • Source – The Hindu



Environmental Conservation related issues

  • According to Indian law, what is noise pollution:
  • According to the Central Pollution Control Board, noise is defined as any unpleasant sound. Noise is defined as any undesirable sound that causes annoyance, irritation, or pain to the human ear.
  • What is the maximum amount of noise that may be tolerated:
  • The allowable amounts of noise in different places during the day and night have been specified by rules. Daytime runs from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m., while nighttime runs from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
  • The noise limit in business areas has been set at 65 decibels during the day and 55 decibels at night. During the day and night, they are 55 dB and 45 dB in residential areas, respectively.
  • The ceiling in industrial areas is set at 75dB and 70dB throughout the day and night, respectively, whereas the same is set at 50dB and 40dB in quiet zones.
  • The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules of 2000 are a set of rules that govern the regulation and control of noise pollution.
  • Noise is classified as a “air contaminant” under Section 2 (a) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981. According to reports, a “air pollutant” is any solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical present in the atmosphere in concentrations that are or tend to be detrimental to humans, other living beings, plants, property, or the environment.
  • The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000, are part of The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, and control noise pollution and its causes.
  • The Act establishes a set ambient tolerable noise level, as well as limitations on the use of loudspeakers, sound-emitting construction equipment, horns, and cracker breaking, among other things.
  • What are the regulations concerning loudspeakers:
  • The Central Pollution Control Board has set punishments for noise pollution violations, including the use of loudspeakers or public addresses, which can result in a Rs 10,000 fine.
  • Where a loudspeaker, public address system, or any other noise source is employed, the noise level at the public place’s perimeter shall not exceed 10 dB (A) above the ambient noise regulations for the area, or 75 dB (A), whichever is lower.
  • A loudspeaker or public address system may only be used with formal permission from the designated authority, according to the rules.
  • Exemption: The state government may grant an exemption for a limited time during any cultural or religious festive occasion that lasts less than 15 days in a calendar year.
  • How can noise pollution affect one’s health:
  • While noise pollution is not as well-known as air and water pollution, it is known to have a negative impact on people’s health.
  • Approximately 1.1 billion young people (aged 12–35 years) are at risk of hearing loss owing to noise exposure, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has said that there is adequate evidence that noise exposure at night causes self-reported sleep disturbance, and that noise-induced sleep disturbance is considered a health issue.
  • According to the WHO, there is evidence that disrupted sleep promotes exhaustion, accidents, and decreased performance, albeit the evidence is limited.
  • Temporary hearing, headaches, and an increase in blood pressure are among the physical diseases caused by increased noise.
  • Source – The Hindu



International Relations

  • Background:
  • In December 2002, then-Deputy Prime Minister L K Advani promised the Portuguese government that the maximum sentence for mobster Abu Salem would not be more than 25 years.
  • What is the definition of extradition:
  • ‘Extradition is the surrender by one state to another of those whom it is intended to deal with for crimes of which they have been accused or convicted and are justifiable in the courts of the other state,’ according to the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India.
  • When will it be possible to start it:
  • In the case of under-investigation, under-trial, and convicted criminals, an extradition request might be made.
  • In cases under investigation, the law enforcement agency must take great care to ensure that it has prima facie evidence to support the claim before the foreign state’s courts of law.
  • In India, what is the legal basis for extradition:
  • The Extradition Act of 1962 establishes the legal framework for extradition in India. It codified the rules governing the extradition of criminals from India to other countries. Act 66 of 1993 made significant changes to the Indian Extradition Act of 1962.
  • In India, who is the central authority for extradition:
  • The Central/Nodal Authority that administers the Extradition Act and processes incoming and outgoing Extradition Requests is the Ministry of External Affairs’ Consular, Passport and Visa (CPV) Division.
  • In the following circumstances, an alleged perpetrator may not be extradited to the requesting state:
  • States are not bound to extradite aliens/nationals if there is no treaty in place.
  • Extradition is generally limited to crimes mentioned in the treaty that may differ in relation to one State from another, as the treaty provides.
  • Military and Political Offenses – For solely military and political offences, extradition may be prohibited. For the purposes of extradition treaties, terrorist acts and violent crimes are excluded from the scope of political offences.
  • Lack of Dual Criminality – When the act creating the offence is criminal in both India and the foreign country, it is called dual criminality.
  • Extradition may be denied if the Extradition Act of 1962’s procedural requirements are not met.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic

  • The sixth submarine in the Indian Navy’s P75 project, Vagsheer, was recently launched.
  • It is the final submarine of the Scorpene class built under the P75 programme.
  • The INS Kalvari, INS Khanderi, INS Karanj, and INS Vela were all commissioned under P75. Vagir is undergoing sea trials.
  • Vagsheer is called after the sand fish, an Indian Ocean deep sea predator. The Indian Navy’s first submarine, the Russian-built Vagsheer, was commissioned on December 26, 1974, and retired on April 30, 1997.
  • Source – The Hindu



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