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12 March 2022

. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    DETAILS OF THE UAPA ACT, 1967Prelims & Mains
3.    ABOUT THE DAM SAFETY BILLPrelims & Mains




Topic – Internal Security of India

  • About the UAPA Act:
  • The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act is a federal law that makes it illegal to engage in certain activities.
  • The law, which was enacted in 1967, aims to effectively eliminate illegal action groups in India.
  • The Act grants the central government supreme authority, and if the Centre determines that an activity is illegal, it can declare it such in the Official Gazette.
  • The most severe penalties are the death sentence and life imprisonment.
  • The UAPA can be used to charge both Indian and foreign nationals.
  • Even if the offence is committed in a foreign country other than India, it will apply to all offenders in the same way.
  • Within 180 days following the arrests, the investigating agency can file a charge sheet under the UAPA, and the time limit can be extended further by alerting the court.
  • The following are the 2019 amendments:
  • The Act permits the Director General to sanction the seizure or attachment of property when the National Investigation Agency (NIA) is investigating a case.
  • In addition to those conducted by the state’s DSP, ACP, or higher rank officer, the Act allows NIA employees with the rank of Inspector or higher to conduct terrorism investigations.
  • It also permitted the labelling of a person as a terrorist.
  • The Delhi High Court established the UAPA’s boundaries:
  • In June 2021, the Delhi High Court threw down certain key principles relating to the imposition of Sections 15, 17 and 18 of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 (UAPA), laying out the boundaries of the otherwise “vague” Section 15 of the Act.
  • Source – The Hindu



Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies

  • What is CBI, exactly:
  • India’s premier investigative agency is the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
  • It is managed by the Prime Minister’s Office’s Department of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pensions & Public Grievances, Government of India.
  • On the other side, the Central Vigilance Commission is in charge of investigations under the Prevention of Corruption Act.
  • It is also India’s nodal police agency, conducting investigations on behalf of Interpol members.
  • It boasts a conviction rate of 65 to 70%, putting it on par with the world’s most prestigious investigative agencies.
  • The following are the court’s observations about the CBI:
  • The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act (DSPE) governs the CBI and gives it the authority to register charges. The Indian Union has nothing to do with it.
  • The CBI is overseen by the central vigilance commission (CVC), and the CVC Act makes it clear that the agency’s investigations cannot be interfered with.
  • The autonomy of CBI poses a number of difficulties:
  • The organisation is dependant on the home ministry for manpower because many of its investigators come from the Indian Police Service.
  • The agency is dependant on the Ministry of Justice for attorneys, and it also lacks certain functional autonomy.
  • The CBI, which is run by IPS officers on deputation, is vulnerable to the government’s ability to manipulate them because top officials are depending on the Central government for future postings.
  • State governments’ reliance on their authority to investigate cases in their jurisdiction, even when the investigation is aimed at a Central government officer.
  • Because the police are a State subject under the Constitution, and the CBI follows the processes set forth in the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), which qualifies it as a police agency, the CBI requires the State government’s permission to operate in that state. This is a lengthy technique that has resulted in some bizarre outcomes.
  • In Vineet Narain v. Union of India, an important case from 1997, the Supreme Court identified many approaches to safeguard the CBI’s autonomy.
  • The Supreme Court used the term “caged parrot” to designate CBI for the following reasons:
  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) has been experiencing a politicisation process for years.
  • The Supreme Court was admonished for acting like a caged parrot speaking in its master’s voice.
  • High-profile cases are not taken seriously since the CBI has been accused of being a “handmaiden” to the ruling party.
  • The prospect of being influenced by the government in the hopes of better future postings was obvious because the CBI is run by central police personnel on deputation.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Government Policies and Interventions

  • Background:
  • Opposition members of Parliament in the Lok Sabha have expressed grave reservations about the Centre’s decision to introduce the Dam Safety Bill, 2019, claiming that the legislation, which is ostensibly aimed at providing uniform safety measures across the country, will undermine state governments’ powers because water is a state subject.
  • The following are some of the concerns raised:
  • The bill focuses too much on structural rather than operational safety.
  • People who have been hurt by dams have not received proper compensation.
  • A neutral regulator, as well as a clear description of stakeholders, are essential.
  • Many states complain that it infringes on state autonomy over dam management and violates the Constitution’s federalism principles. They see it as an attempt by the Centre to consolidate power under the guise of security concerns.
  • The Central Government’s Position:
  • Despite the fact that the subject is outside of Parliament’s jurisdiction, the Centre has chosen to present the bill because dam safety is a key concern in the country. Furthermore, no legal or institutional safeguards are in place.
  • The following are the highlights of the 2019 Dam Safety Bill:
  • The Bill stipulates adequate surveillance, inspection, operation, and maintenance of all designated dams in the country to ensure their safe functioning.
  • The bill creates a National Committee on Dam Safety, which will draught dam safety policies and make recommendations for any necessary legislation.
  • The bill creates the National Dam Safety Authority as a regulatory body charged with enforcing the country’s dam safety policy, rules, and standards.
  • The bill mandates the formation of a State Committee on Dam Safety by the State Government.
  • Significance:
  • The bill will help all Indian states and union territories implement uniform dam safety protocols that will assure dam safety while also protecting dam benefits. This will also help to safeguard human life, animal life, and property.
  • Monthly dam inspections, an emergency action plan, a thorough dam safety review, enough repair and maintenance money for dam safety, and instruments and safety instructions are all included. It makes the dam owner responsible for dam safety and contains penalties for certain actions taken or not taken.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Parliament and related issues

  • Why is it making headlines:
  • The Central Vista Project was recently designated by the Central Government as a National Importance Project.
  • The Central Vista Project is comprised of the following components:
  • The Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs submitted a Central Vista refurbishment proposal in 2019.
  • A triangular edifice will be constructed next to the existing Parliament building to serve as the Central Secretariat for the Common Good.
  • Between Rashtrapati Bhavan and India Gate, the 3-kilometer-long Rajpath is being remodelled.
  • Museums will be built in the North and South Blocks.
  • The following is the government’s case for redeveloping Central Vista:
  • The Parliament building’s amenities and infrastructure are insufficient to meet current demand.
  • The offices of the Central Government are distributed around the country, producing inter-departmental coordination challenges and unnecessary travel, which contributes to traffic congestion and pollution.
  • The vast bulk of existing structures have outlived their usefulness.
  • Rashtrapati Bhawan, Parliament House, North and South Blocks, India Gate, and the National Archives are all located in New Delhi’s Central Vista, which is located in the heart of the city.
  • Source – The Hindu

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