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15 March 2022

 No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    CHAR DHAM PROJECTPrelims & Mains
3.    MODEL TENANCY ACTPrelims & Mains




Topic – Indian Culture

  • Context:
  • The Supreme Court has asked retired Justice AK Sikri to lead the high-powered committee it has established to “examine the cumulative and independent impact of the Char Dham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojana (Char Dham Highway Development Project) on the entire Himalayan region.”
  • What exactly is the problem:
  • Ravi Chopra, a veteran environmentalist, resigned as head of the Supreme Court’s High Powered Committee (HPC) on the Char Dham project in February 2022, citing his “confidence that the HPC could conserve this vulnerable (Himalayan) nature as broken.
  • Chopra referred to the Supreme Court’s December 2021 judgment, which allowed the broader road design to fulfill defense needs, rather than what the HPC had advised and the SC had agreed in its earlier order in September 2020, in his resignation letter to the secretary general.
  • So far, what has the Court said in this case:
  • An NGO challenged the project in 2018 because of its potential impact on the Himalayan ecology due to the removal of trees, the cutting of slopes, and the disposal of excavated waste.
  • The SC appointed HPC Chopra to investigate the matters in 2019 and approved his recommendations on road width and other issues in September 2020.
  • The Ministry of Defence needed bigger highways in November 2020 to satisfy the Army’s needs.
  • The Supreme Court changed its September 2020 order in December 2021, stating that the court could not “interrogate the policy choice of the establishment that is entrusted by law with the nation’s defense.”
  • Concerning the Chardham project:
  • At a cost of Rs.12,000 crores, the project will develop and widen roughly 900 kilometers of national highways connecting the holy Hindu pilgrimage destinations of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri.
  • The highway will be known as Char Dham Mahamarg (Char Dham Highway), and the construction project will be known as Char Dham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojana (Char Dham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojana) (Char Dham Highway Development Project).
  • What are the environmental issues that have been raised:
  • Large-scale construction projects on steep terrain are a recipe for disaster, as the chopping of trees and loosening of rocks increases the likelihood of landslides.
  • The project was carried out without the need for necessary environmental clearances or environmental impact assessments (EIAs).
  • Over 25,000 trees are said to have been cut to make place for the project, which is a major concern for the environmentally sensitive area.
  • The aim of having an all-weather roadway may be jeopardized because broader carriageways would necessitate more excavation and blasting, making the landscape more susceptible to slippage and landslides.
  • Source – The PIB



Topic – Election related issues:

  • Context:
  • The Election Commission, according to Chief Election Commissioner Sushil Chandra, is prepared to organize simultaneous polls or ‘One Nation, One Election.’
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi spoke about ‘One Nation, One Election’ and ‘One Nation, One Voters’ list’ earlier this year on National Voters’ Day, and claimed that the constant cycle of election results is hampering development efforts.
  • What does it mean to have “One Nation, One Election”:
  • It refers to holding simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats, and Urban Local Bodies every five years.
  • But, what are the difficulties that regular elections bring:
  • Massive financial outlay.
  • The enforcement of the Model Code of Conduct during election season causes policy stagnation.
  • Impact on critical service delivery.
  • Putting a strain on vital labor employed during election season.
  • As elections get more expensive, it puts pressure on political parties, particularly smaller ones.
  • Simultaneous Elections Benefits:
  • Governance and consistency: Instead of constantly campaigning, the ruling parties will be able to focus on legislation and governance.
  • Money and administrative costs are reduced.
  • Policies and programs must be consistent.
  • Government Efficiency: Government populist measures will be reduced.
  • Because all elections are held at the same time, the impact of black money on voters will be limited.
  • Regional repercussions:
  • When the Lok Sabha and state elections are held at the same time, people have a tendency to vote for the same party that is in power at the state and at the federal level.
  • Changes to the Constitution and Legislations are required to implement simultaneous elections:
  • An modification to Article 83, which deals with the term of Houses of Parliament, is required.
  • 85th Article (on dissolution of Lok Sabha by the president).
  • 172nd Article (relating to the duration of state legislatures).
  • The 1951 Representation of People Act would need to be changed to provide measures for both parliament and assembly’ tenure stability. The following essential aspects should be included:
  • Restructuring the ECI’s powers and functions to make the procedures for simultaneous elections go more smoothly
  • Section 2 of the 1951 legislation could be amended to provide a definition of simultaneous election.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Government Policies and Interventions

  • Context:
  • The long-awaited Chandigarh Tenancy Act is presently waiting for Parliament’s approval.
  • The UT administration has agreed to transmit the proposed Act to the Union government for approval and passage, based on the Centre’s Model Tenancy Act, 2021.
  • Background:
  • The Model Tenancy Act was adopted by the Union Cabinet in June 2021. (MTA).
  • States and union territories can now introduce new legislation or alter their existing rental rules to comply with the Model Tenancy Act.
  • The following are some of the Model Law’s highlights:
  • It is only applicable in the future and will not affect existing tenancies.
  • For all new tenancies, a written agreement is required. The agreement must be submitted to the ‘Rent Authority’ in the concerned district.
  • The law also specifies the landlord’s and renters’ roles and responsibilities.
  • Any essential supply to the tenant’s occupied premises cannot be withheld by the landlord or property management.
  • If the tenancy has not been renewed, it will be renewed on a month-to-month basis under the same terms and conditions as the expired tenancy agreement, for a maximum of six months.
  • Compensation in the event of a non-vacancy: Upon the expiration of a six-month extension of the agreed-upon tenancy period or the termination of the tenancy by order or notice, the tenant becomes a tenant in default and is liable to pay double the monthly rent for two months and four times the monthly rent thereafter.
  • A landowner or property manager may access a premise if the tenant receives written notice or notice via electronic means at least twenty-four hours prior to the entry time.
  • Significance:
  • It is a significant piece of legislation that, by balancing the interests of tenants and landlords, promises to reduce the strain on civil courts, liberate rental properties caught in legal disputes, and prevent future tangles.
  • There is a need for legislation in this area:
  • Young, educated job seekers traveling to large cities frequently complain about onerous tenancy requirements and exorbitant security deposits they are required to pay to lease housing. Tenants in some localities are required to pay security deposits equal to 11 months’ rent.
  • In addition, some property owners habitually infringe on renters’ right to privacy by showing up unannounced for various repairs.
  • Rent increases that are arbitrary are another issue for tenants, who sometimes complain of being treated as “captive clients.”
  • Furthermore, tenants are frequently accused of “squatting” on rented property or attempting to seize it.
  • Source – The Hindu


Prelims Specific Topic:

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently dedicated the Rashtriya Raksha University in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, to the nation.
  • The Indian Parliament Act established Rashtriya Raksha University as a Nationally Important Institution.
  • The University aspires to become a national security and law enforcement academic-research-training ecosystem.
  • Source – The PIB

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