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TOPIC: GS 2 India and its Neighborhood- Relations.

India was keen not to lose diplomatic space to persuade Sri Lanka on devolution for Tamils  

What is the news?

India abstained from voting on UN human rights council resolution on sri lanka , signalled its unwillingness to upset its neighbour .

History

  • The Tamil Tigers had been waging a full-scale war for an independent state of Tamil Eelam in the North and East of Sri Lanka since 1983.
  • After the failure of the Norwegian mediated peace process in 2006 the Sri Lankan military launched offensives aimed at recapturing territory controlled by the Tamil Tigers.
  • There were war crimes and crimes against humanity that were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009.
  • The war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilian strapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers.
  • A United Nations panel in 2011 found that as many as 40,000 Tamil civilians may have been killed in the final months of the civil war.
  • At the 11th special session of the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) in May 2009 seventeen countries attempted to get the UNHRC to investigate war crimes in Sri Lanka.

UNHRC report on Sri Lanka

The report warned that Sri Lanka’s failure to address human rights violations and war crimes committed in the past had put the country on a “dangerous path”.

The Resolution 30/1

The resolution 30/1 launched in 2015 deals with promoting reconciliation, accountability and human rights in Sri Lanka. It extended an opportunity to make good on its promises for justice and offered extensive support to accomplish that objective.

India Intension

  • India seems to have utilized the opportunity to pervasive influence of china over Srilanka even while maintaining its support for the Tamil minority to achieve equality , justice and peace with dignity
  • Even when it voted in 2012 in favour of credible investigation into human rights, India had got the resolution to incorporate the need for Sri lanka’s concurrence to any assistance that office of High commissioner for Human rights may offer in a such a probe
  • In the current session and just ahead of the vote , India stressed on both meaningful devolution to meet Tamil aspirations and the unity and integrity of sri lanka aspects that it believes are not an ‘ either or – choice’

Current Resolution

  • The resolution comes amidst disturbing signs that Srilanka is regressing into days of democratic deficit seen prior to 2015 election
  • Unfortunately , the present regime withdrew from commitments made to UNHRC by its predecessor on constructive engagement with the international community
  • The UN High commissioner’s report raises concern over increasing militarization , heightened surveillance against rights defenders and NGO , interference with new prosecution in emblematic cases cases from the past

Way forward

India concern in Srilanka have always been different from the rest of the international community , informed by a  sense of the long term well – being of Tamils and the power sharing does foster reconciliation

 Mains question

India was keen not to lose diplomatic space to persuade Srilanka . Discuss

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/unhrc-adopts-resolution-against-sri-lankas-rights-record/article34141087.ece

TOPIC : GS 1 Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

Adding coal to the fire

What is the news?

  • Carmichael coal project will generate jobs but significantly impact health and environment
  • India loses the fight against climate change , new investments in coal will be decisive factor .
  • One of the world’s largest new coal investment $16.5 billion dollar Carmichael coal mine project in Queensland

Gains and losses

  • Coal mining provides incomes for Australia’s local economy , but the health and environment harm from mining and combustion represents a big net loss for the world
  • CO2 emission , the chief cause of climate change , totaled 36 billion metric tonnes globally in 2019 of which nearly 40% comes from coal
  • The Carmichael mine is set to become Australia’s largest coal mine, producing up to 60 million of coal mine , producing up to 60 million over 60 year life span
  • Of the nearly 8 billion tonnes of coal produced global in 2019 , a sixth is exported , with the largest share , one third coming from Australia
  • In 2020, 16% of Australia’s coal export were shipped to India
  • Mines and coal export generate incomes and jobs , but when the destruction from pollution , soil erosion and biodiversity los is included
  • In India , coal contributes to 1,00,000 premature deaths annually the are hit the hardest
  • It bears mentioning that 17 international banks declined to fund the Carmichael mine based on its weak financials and environmental danger
  • The mining of coal emits massive amounts of particles pollution , contributing of heart disease, and lung cancer .
  • With exports of coal, India will be hurt too from burning coal and the global harm is a multiple of Australia’s.

Way forward

Australia faced heat waves, bush fires and intense rainfall that are linked to climate change. Annual emission of 79 million tonnes of carbon equivalent from the Carmichael mine. It is time for India and Australia to leave coal underground

Mains question

Account the present location of coal away from the source of raw material , by giving examples .

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/adding-coal-to-the-fire/article34153623.ece

PRELIMS PUNCHERS

  1. Suez Canal

The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez, and dividing Africa and Asia. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869. The canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean and Red seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to London.

The original canal featured a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake. It contained, according to Alois Negrelli’s plans, no lock systems, with seawater flowing freely through it. In general, the water in the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez

Source :  https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-has-caused-a-traffic-jam-in-the-suez-canal-7243543/

  1. Predatory pricing

Predatory pricing is a pricing strategy, using the method of undercutting on a larger scale, where a dominant firm in an industry will deliberately reduce its prices of a product or service to loss-making levels in the short-term. The aim is that existing or potential competitors within the industry will be forced to leave the market, as they will be unable to effectively compete with the dominant firm without making a loss. Once competition has been eliminated, the dominant firm now with having a majority share of the market can then raise their prices to monopoly levels in the long-term to recoup their losses.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/define-unfair-trade-practice-for-e-com/article34154056.ece

  1. Operation Thiruvallur

The effort involves meticulous and high risk segregation of unexploded ordnance and controlled destruction, which has been undertaken by a formation of the Southern Command that has expertise in handling bombs and explosive devices. The activity will go on for three to five days. The operation is being undertaken under the aegis of ‘Aid to Civil Authorities,’ involving the safe disposal of nearly 10 tonnes of unexploded ordnance which had possibly been collected inadvertently by some factories over a number of years located in the general area of SIPCOT Industrial Estate in Gummidipoondi in Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/india/operation-thiruvallur-launched-to-safely-dispose-unexploded-ordnance-in-tamil-nadu-7240989/

  1. Axone

Axone — also spelled akhuni — is a fermented soya bean of Nagaland, known for its distinctive flavour and smell. As much an ingredient as it is a condiment, Axone used to make pickles and chutneys, or curries of pork, fish, chicken, beef etc. the Sumi (also Sema) tribe. Fermented soya bean is cooked with, eaten and known by different names in different parts of Northeast India, including Meghalaya and Mizoram, Sikkim, Manipur as well in other South, Southeast and East Asian countries of Nepal, Bhutan, Japan, Korea, China, Myanmar, Vietnam and Indonesia.

 Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-axone-fermented-soya-bean-nagaland-6463008/#:~:text=What%20is%20axone%3F-,Axone%20%E2%80%94%20also%20spelled%20akhuni%20%E2%80%94%20is%20a%20fermented%20soya%20bean%20of,fish%2C%20chicken%2C%20beef%20etc.

  1. Yukthi

 It’s a unique portal and dashboard  to monitor and record the efforts and initiatives of MHRD. The portal intends to cover the different dimensions of COVID-19 challenges in a very holistic and comprehensive way. It will cover the various initiatives and efforts of the institutions in academics, research especially related to CoVID, social initiatives by institutions and the measures taken for the betterment of the total wellbeing of the students. The portal will cover both qualitative and quantitative parameters for effective delivery of services to the academic community at large. portal will also establish a two-way communication channel between the Ministry of HRD and the institutions so that the Ministry can provide the necessary support system to the institutions.

Source https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1613569

PRELIMS QUESTIONS

Qn 1 Consider the following statement regarding Suez canal

  1. It is natural sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Caspian Sea through the Isthmus of Suez
  2. It divides Asia and Europe

Select the correct statement using code given below.

(a). 1only       (b) 2 only

(c).Both       (d). None of above

Answer: D

The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez; and dividing Africa and Asia. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it officially opened on 17 November 1869. The canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean and Red seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to London

Qn 1. Consider the following statement regarding Axon

  1. It is fermented soya bean in Manipur
  2. It is prepared and eaten mainly by Sumi tribe

Select the correct statement using code given below.

(a). 1only       (b) 2 only

(c).Both       (d). None of  above

Answer: B

Axone — also spelled akhuni — is a fermented soya bean of Nagaland, known for its distinctive flavour and smell. As much an ingredient as it is a condiment, Axone used to make pickles and chutneys, or curries of pork, fish, chicken, beef etc. the Sumi (also Sema) tribe. Fermented soya bean is cooked with, eaten and known by different names in different parts of Northeast India, including Meghalaya and Mizoram, Sikkim, Manipur as well in other South, Southeast and East Asian countries of Nepal, Bhutan, Japan, Korea, China, Myanmar, Vietnam and Indonesia.

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