30 MARCH 2022 – CA

 No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
2.    DETAILS OF THE BRICS Prelims & Mains




Topic – Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies

  • Context:
  • Two Kashmir residents have filed a petition in the Supreme Court contesting the Centre’s decision to form a delimitation panel to redesign assembly and Lok Sabha constituencies in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • What exactly is the problem:
  • The petition sought a declaration that the increase in the number of seats in Jammu & Kashmir from 107 to 114 (including 24 seats in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir) is in violation of constitutional provisions such as Articles 14, 81, 82, 170, 330, and 332, as well as statutory provisions such as Section 63 of the Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019.
  • The petition argued that, because Article 170 of the Indian Constitution states that the next delimitation will take place after 2026, why has the UT of Jammu and Kashmir been singled out?
  • When was the Delimitation Commission established:
  • On March 6, 2020, the Union Government’s Ministry of Law and Justice (Legislative Department) issued a notification under Section 3 of the Delimitation Act, 2002, establishing a Delimitation Commission, chaired by former Supreme Court judge (Retd) Ranjana Prakash Desai, for the purpose of delimitating Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Manipur.
  • Provisions of the Constitution:
  • After each Census, Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act under Article 82.
  • Every Census, under Article 170, states are divided into territorial constituencies based on the Delimitation Act.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – International Relations

  • Context:
  • A three-month training programme for journalists has been put together by leading media organisations from the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa).
  • The event was organised by the BRICS Media Forum.
  • The BRICS Media Forum is comprised of the following countries:
  • The Forum was founded in 2015 by media organisations from the five countries, including The Hindu, CMA Group of Brazil, Sputnik of Russia, Xinhua of China, and Independent Media of South Africa.
  • “It was conceived and developed so that it can function as an autonomous initiative and set of practical actions done within the wide framework of BRICS cooperation,” according to the Forum’s website.
  • What are the BRICS countries:
  • The BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) group is made up of the five biggest emerging countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • It is home to 42 percent of the world’s population, 23 percent of GDP, 30 percent of the land, and 18 percent of global trade.
  • In 2001, Goldman Sachs economist ‘Jim O’Neill’ invented the acronym BRIC to denote the developing powers that will be, with the United States, the world’s five greatest economies in the twenty-first century.
  • BRIC countries began their communication in 2006, and it has continued since 2009 at yearly meetings of chiefs of state and government.
  • With the addition of South Africa to the group in 2011, the BRICS reached its final makeup, which included a country from Africa.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies

  • Context:
  • The National Commission for Women (NCW), in partnership with the Delhi State Legal Services Authority (DSLSA), has launched a legal aid clinic that would serve as a single-window facility for resolving women’s issues by providing them with free legal assistance.
  • Similar legal services clinics are also being planned by NCW in other State Commissions for Women.
  • The following is information about the legal assistance clinic:
  • Counseling will be provided for walk-in complainants, women in distress will be given legal assistance, advice and information on various schemes of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)/ DSLSA, assistance in mahila jansunwai, free legal aid, hearings in matrimonial cases, and other complaints registered with the Commission will be provided, among other services, under the new legal aid clinic.
  • NCW’s Background:
  • The National Commission Act established it in 1992.
  • It was formed to examine the constitutional and legal protections for women.
  • It has all of the same authorities as a civil court.
  • Reports are presented as follows:
  • Every year, and at such other times as the commission deems appropriate, it submits reports to the central government on the effectiveness of those protections.
  • Notice given on the spur of the moment:
  • It investigates complaints and takes Suo Motto action on issues such as violation of women’s rights, non-compliance with legislation, and non-compliance with policy decisions that ensure the welfare of women in society.
  • The National Commission for Women’s major limitations render it toothless:
  • The NCW is solely advisory and has no legal authority to enforce its decisions.
  • As a result of its lack of constitutional status, the Commission has no legal authority to summon police personnel or witnesses.
  • It has no legal authority to take legal action against Internal Complaint Committees that prevent women facing harassment from redressing their grievances.
  • The Commission receives relatively little financial assistance to meet its needs.
  • It lacks the authority to select its own members. The Union government has the right to pick members, resulting in political influence at several levels.
  • Source – The Hindu



Topic – Internal Security of India

  • Context:
  • Six of the 12 sectors along their 885-kilometer border have been partially addressed in a 50-year-old border dispute between Assam and Meghalaya.
  • Both countries struck a “historic” agreement to bring six contested areas to a close in the first phase of negotiations.
  • The six areas of contention are as follows:
  • Assam’s Kamrup, Kamrup (Metro), and Cachar districts, as well as Meghalaya’s West Khasi Hills, Ri-Bhoi, and East Jaintia Hills districts, have Tarabari, Gizang, Hahim, Boklapara, Khanapara-Pillangkata, and Ratacherra.
  • What exactly is the point of contention:
  • The boundary between Assam and Meghalaya is 885 kilometres long. The Assam Reorganisation Act, 1971, was used to cut Meghalaya out of Assam, a statute that it opposed, resulting in disagreements.
  • There are currently 12 points of contention along their borders. Upper Tarabari, Gazang reserve forest, Hahim, Langpih, Borduar, Boklapara, Nongwah, Matamur, Khanapara-Pilangkata, Deshdemoreah Block I and Block II, Khanduli, and Retacherra are among those affected.
  • Langpih:
  • The district of Langpih in the West Garo Hills, which borders the Assam district of Kamrup, is a major bone of contention between Assam and Meghalaya.
  • During the British colonial period, Langpih was part of the Kamrup district, but after independence, it became part of the Garo Hills and Meghalaya.
  • Assam believes it to be a part of Assam’s Mikir Hills. Meghalaya has raised concerns over Blocks I and II of the Mikir Hills, which are now part of the Karbi Anglong region of Assam. According to Meghalaya, they were once part of the United Khasi and Jaintia Hills districts.
  • Efforts to resolve the conflict:
  • Border dispute settlement panels have been established in both Assam and Meghalaya.
  • Himanta Biswa Sarma, the Chief Minister of Assam, and Conrad Sangma, the Chief Minister of Meghalaya, have agreed to form two regional committees to resolve the border conflicts in stages.
  • Sarma has stated that there are five elements to consider when addressing the border dispute. Historical facts, ethnicity, administrative convenience, the mood and sentiments of the individuals affected, and the land’s proximity are all factors to consider.
  • Border concerns in Assam:
  • The Northeastern states were created mostly from Assam, which has border issues with numerous other states. The Supreme Court is now hearing Assam’s boundary disputes with Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
  • The boundary conflicts between Assam and Meghalaya and Mizoram are currently being resolved through negotiations. The recent escalation of the border issue with Mizoram prompted the Centre to intervene.
  • Source – The Hindu