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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS

14 MAY 2022

. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    About PM Awas Yojna UrbanPrelims & Mains
2.    Details of India Nepal RelationsPrelims & Mains
3.    About Abrogation of Article 370 of the Indian ConstitutionPrelims & Mains
4.    Details of Reservation of Seats for Anglo Indians in Lok SabhaPrelims Specific Topic
5.    About National Investigation AgencyPrelims Specific Topic

 

1 – About PM Awas Yojna Urban: 

GS II

Government Schemes

  • Context:
  • PM Awas’ home was geotagged five times, with the most recent payment made a week before it was bulldozed.
  • The first warning of encroachment was received after four rounds of geotagging; officials claim it was provided by a “third agency,” but the collector remained silent on why and how payments were made.
  • About:
  • With this, the total number of houses sanctioned under PMAY(U) has climbed to 112.4 lakh, with 82.5 lakh plots of land ready for construction and 48.31 lakh completed/delivered thus far.
  • Also revealed was the ‘PMAY-U Awards 2021 – 100 Days Challenge.’
  • The awards are given to recognise States, Union Territories (UTs), Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), and beneficiaries for their outstanding contributions and achievements in ensuring the Mission’s success.
  • About PMAY-U stands for Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban:
  • It is the hallmark mission of the Indian government, carried out by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).
  • It was launched on June 25, 2015, with the goal of providing a pucca house to all qualifying urban households by 2022, when the country celebrates its 75th anniversary of independence, to address the urban housing crisis among the EWS/LIG and MIG groups, including slum residents.
  • PMAY(U) follows a demand-driven method, with state/union territory demand evaluations determining housing shortages.
  • Coverage:
  • The Mission includes Statutory Towns, Notified Planning Areas, Development Authorities, Special Area Development Authorities, Industrial Development Authorities, and any other institution charged with urban planning and supervision under State legislation.
  • Features:
  • Toilets, running water, electricity, and a kitchen are provided in every PMAY(U) house.
  • The Mission promotes female empowerment by allowing female members to purchase homes alone or collectively.
  • Priority is given to those with disabilities, senior citizens, SCs, STs, OBCs, Minorities, single women, transgender people, and other weaker and vulnerable people.
  • A PMAY(U) house gives a dignified living environment as well as a sense of security and ownership to the beneficiaries.
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has reversed urban migration and increased poverty in the country. Urban migrants reside in slums, informal settlements, illegal colonies, and peri-urban areas to save money on housing.
  • As a result, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MHUA) has announced the establishment of Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs), a sub-scheme of the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U).
  • This will make it easier for urban migrants and disadvantaged workers in the industrial and informal economies to locate decent, affordable rental homes close to their workplace.
  • Components:
  • As a result, the plan is divided into four verticals, as seen below:
  • ISSR (In Situ Slum Redevelopment):
  • All houses built for qualified slum residents under the ISSR component using land as a resource with private developer participation are eligible for Central Assistance of Rs. 1 lakh per house.
  • Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS):
  • Beneficiaries of the Economically Weaker Section (EWS)/Low Income Group (LIG), Middle Income Group (MIG)-I, and Middle Income Group (MIG)-II who seek housing loans from Banks, Housing Finance Companies, and other such institutions for the acquisition, new construction, or enhancement* of their homes are eligible for interest subsidies of 6.5 percent, 4%, and 3%, respectively, on loan amounts up to Rs. 6 lakh, Rs. 9 lakh, and Rs. 12 lakh.
  • The AHP (Affordable Housing Partnership):
  • It is a group of people that work together to make housing more affordable.
  • Under the AHP, the Indian government distributes Rs. 1.5 lakh in central assistance to each EWS household.
  • An affordable housing project can include a mix of dwellings for different categories, but it will only be eligible for Central Assistance if at least 35 percent of the houses are for the EWS category.
  • Beneficiaries’ individual house construction/improvement (BLC-N/ BLC-E):
  • Qualified EWS families can receive up to Rs. 1.5 lakh in central aid for individual house construction/improvement.
  • The Urban Local Bodies verify the beneficiary’s details and building plan in order to evaluate land ownership and other factors such as economic status and eligibility.
  • Source – The Hindu

2 – Details of India Nepal Relations:

GS II

International Relations

  • Context:
  • The Modi-Deuba talks will cover a wide range of themes, including: Foreign Secretary of India
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will spend a day in Lumbini during the Buddha Purnima festival. This will be the Prime Minister’s fifth visit to Nepal since 2014.
  • Nepal is the world’s 45th largest country, with a population of 29 million people. Nepal is far too big to remain a vassal state, even if only because of its size. The country takes pride in the fact that it has never been conquered, and it is strategically located between India and China. However, Nepal and India have very diverse opinions on each other, contrary to public assumptions of a friendly diplomatic relationship.
  • Background:
  • The relationship between India and Nepal extends back to Gautama Buddha’s reign and the Sakya dynasty. Nepal was previously under tribal rule, and the feudal era did not begin in Nepal until Licchavi control.
  • Between 750 and 1750 AD, Nepal saw a cultural shift from Buddhism to Hinduism, resulting in major cultural dispersion.
  • In the early 1700s, the Nepalese power structure began to alter. Both monarchical and prime ministerial rule characterise the following period. A dynasty rule known as the “Rana” was formed for the Prime Minister.
  • In Nepal, the Rana rule established itself and lasted until 1951.
  • In the 1920s, as the Indian liberation war progressed, many educated Nepalese people travelled to India and joined the fight. As a result, the Nepalese elite learned an awareness of peaceful struggle.
  • Following this, the Nepalese elite organised a movement in Nepal that was successful in deposing the Ranas.
  • In this movement, the Nepali Congress played the most essential role (NC).
  • Nepalese friendship:
  • The Indian government recognises Nepalese people’s dignity and pride. Jawaharlal Nehru argued in his works “The Discovery of India” and “Glimpses of World History” that Nepal was the only truly sovereign country in South Asia.
  • Nepal has previously acted as a good neighbour in response to India’s demands. India’s quest for independence was aided by its political leaders.
  • People-to-people contact between India and Nepal is unparalleled.
  • Even in the most remote corners of India, Nepalese are well-liked. No one in India wishes for Nepal’s demise.
  • The Army Chief’s claims that Nepal is acting on orders from elsewhere are false.
  • Both countries have established a system to resolve boundary disputes.
  • Since 2016, relationships have evolved:
  • For sea shipping, Nepal relies on India. It is completely dependant on India for transit privileges.
  • The Madhesi agitation and misunderstandings that occurred throughout the constitution-making process profoundly changed India-Nepal relations.
  • During his visit to China in 2016, Nepal’s Prime Minister, Mr. Oli, was able to force through a trade and transit deal with China, comparable to the special arrangements with India.
  • Nepal will be connected to China via a railway network in addition to roadways.
  • Transmission cables will be used to connect the two countries. It provides Nepal with a much-needed option for selling surplus electricity.
  • Nepal’s rail and road networks will also provide an alternative to petroleum products.
  • The Cause of This Relationship’s Decline:
  • When India was accused of interfering in the development of Nepal’s constitution in 2015, the relationship suffered a knock.
  • India was also implicated for a “unofficial blockade” in the Madhesi crisis, which created tremendous resentment in the country.
  • Nepali politicians were able to capitalise on Nepali nationalism and anti-Indianism.
  • China took advantage of the circumstance. In the past, China had a good relationship with the Palace, and its main concerns were the Tibetan refugees.
  • China’s focus has shifted to political parties and institutions such as the Army and Armed Police Force now that the monarchy has been abolished.
  • In recent years, China’s foreign policy has become more assertive, and Nepal is an important element of the country’s ever-expanding footprint.
  • Territorial strife:
  • Nepal has unveiled a new political map that includes the strategically important Uttarakhand lands of Kalapani, Limpiyadhura, and Lipulekh.
  • India-Nepal Border:
  • The 1,800-kilometer open border between India and Nepal runs across West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Sikkim.
  • Following the Peace and Friendship Treaty of 1950, the two countries supported a well-defined and publicly acknowledged “open border” between them.
  • Individuals can freely and without limitations cross a “open border” on either side. The open border has boosted social and trade connectivity between the two countries, resulting in the ‘roti-beti karishta’ phenomena.
  • Territorial Conflict Between India and Nepal:
  • The Survey of India produced a new political map (eighth edition) on November 2, 2019, to reflect the division of Jammu & Kashmir into two Union Territories.
  • Despite the fact that the map did not affect the border between India and Nepal, Nepal expressed their displeasure.
  • On November 8, the ninth edition was released, with the same demarcation but without the word Kali River. This provoked even more protests in Nepal.
  • Nepal’s second constitutional amendment bill will replace the present map in Schedule 3 of the Nepalese Constitution with the contested map.
  • Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh, and Kalapani are shown on the new map as strategically important terrain in Nepal.
  • The new alignment adds 335 square kilometres to Nepal’s boundaries, an area that has never been depicted on a Nepal map in nearly 170 years.
  • The border dispute between India and Nepal concerns the Uttarakhand regions of Kalapani, Lipulekh, Limpiyadhura, and Susta (Bihar).
  • Friendship Treaty:
  • India and Nepal signed a Treaty of Friendship and Peace on July 31, 1950. Seven decades later, Nepal is calling for the pact to be “revised” to reflect “new circumstances and realities.” This year’s Joint Commission Meeting between India and Nepal emphasised the need for adjustment once more. Both sides agreed to “review, alter, and revise” the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1950 during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s first visit to Nepal in 2014.
  • The Treaty’s Characteristics:
  • The connection between the two countries is built on this agreement. In exchange for not interfering in each other’s territory, the treaty grants mutual peace, friendship, and sovereignty.
  • If Nepal imports arms from a country other than India, it must first consult India, according to the treaty.
  • The agreement permits countries to treat one other more favourably.
  • National treatment encompasses both industrial and economic growth.
  • Both countries’ citizens have the same property, commerce, residency, and travel rights. That is, a Nepali citizen can buy real estate in India while an Indian citizen can do the same in Nepal, and an Indian citizen can live anywhere in Nepal while a Nepali citizen can live anywhere in India under national treatment.
  • The agreement also emphasises the value of open borders. As a result, Indian citizens can visit Nepal without obtaining a visa, and vice versa.
  • Each party can request a revision to the treaty at any moment, according to the treaty.
  • Infrastructure projects:
  • India’s immediate neighbours routinely blame it for holding development projects but failing to deliver on schedule. India has been advised to accelerate development measures in Nepal in light of growing Chinese influence.
  • However, due to the completion of a few significant projects in recent years, India’s reputation for not completing projects on time has shifted. The collaborative initiatives demonstrate professionalism.
  • India’s infrastructure development has flaws:
  • The Mahakali Accord has been in limbo for more than two decades.
  • The collapse of the Koshi embankment in 2008 resulted in major flooding, highlighting India’s failure to take preventative measures and refusal to accept responsibility.
  • Many cooperative projects are still mired in red tape, such as the non-operational railway line linking Janakpur, Nepal, and Jaynagar, India.
  • For a variety of reasons, hydropower projects financed by India have made little progress in Nepal during the last two decades. The Arun-3 project has been one of the most talked about and unresolved issues since the 1990s.
  • Infrastructure project progress: The two countries’ connectivity is currently being improved. In their communiqués, Nepalese Prime Ministers are known to raise a number of issues about delayed projects.
  • Energy industry:
  • In recent years, there have been some visible developments in hydropower projects. For example, the Arun-3 hydropower project has gained traction.
  • In terms of energy cooperation, two countries have already agreed to use the energy banking concept, and both are working to implement it. During the summer, Nepal will export more power to India than it imports during the dry season, according to this proposal.
  • One of the significant projects that was finished ahead of schedule was the cross-border petroleum pipeline.
  • China’s impact on Indo-Nepal relations:
  • The fundamental reason for China’s presence in Nepal is to prevent Tibetans from sowing dissatisfaction on Nepalese soil. The Chinese attempted to build an economic presence in Nepal from the 1950s through the 1980s, which grew dramatically after the 1990s.
  • China has deepened its economic ties with Nepal, making progress in infrastructure, education, and health care.
  • Relaxation of policy:
  • In the recent decade, China’s soft policy influence with Nepal has grown stronger.
  • China has even set up a number of Mandarin language schools in the Terai region.
  • Madhesis are receiving Mandarin language training from Chinese so that they can work in the rapidly increasing Chinese economy in the near future.
  • Infrastructure:
  • Nepal is getting help from China to bridge the infrastructure gap.
  • Nepal wants to use Tibet’s rail infrastructure to its advantage. It promised to build a railway line connecting Kathmandu and Pokhara with Lumbini, Lord Buddha’s birthplace.
  • China and Nepal signed agreements for all-weather road connectivity between Kathmandu and the Tibet Autonomous Region. The route between Rasawagadi and Syabrubesi is also important.
  • Both countries have agreed to speed up the implementation of Belt and Road Initiative projects that will now be part of the Trans-Himalayan Multidimensional Connectivity Network.
  • Nepal has been promised a special economic zone as part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
  • Source – The Indian Express

3 – About Abrogation of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution:

GS II

Articles of the Indian Constitution

  • Context:
  • The Supreme Court chastises counsel for stating that Kashmir became part of India after Article 370 was removed.
  • The court was debating a petition challenging the delimitation process, which proposed raising the number of seats in the J&K Assembly from 83 to 90.
  • Article 370’s Characteristics and Provisions:
  • Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions apply to several Indian states in Part XXI of the Indian Constitution.
  • This is the basis for J&K’s “Special Status.”
  • It creates a distinct Constitution for Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Limits the Union Parliament’s ability to pass legislation for J&K to the issues listed in the Instrument of Accession (defence, foreign affairs, and communications), as well as other topics as notified by Presidential Orders with the State Government’s agreement.
  • The method through which the Article will lose its force has been specified. That is, the State’s Constituent Assembly must approve such a notification before the President sends it. This clause has been changed by the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019.
  • Is it permanent or not:
  • The article was added in response to Maharaja Hari Singh’s fears that he would not have acceded to India unless certain concessions were made.
  • The constitution contained such a unique phrase since geographical integrity was so crucial to India after independence.
  • However, the provision is included under the “Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions” section of our constitution.
  • Furthermore, Article 370 is temporary in the sense that the J&K Constituent Assembly had the right to amend, repeal, or reinstate it; it opted to preserve it.
  • Another viewpoint was that the accession would be temporary and would be followed by a referendum.
  • Issues with Revocation:
  • Article 370 establishes a constitutional link between Jammu and Kashmir and the rest of India.
  • It is described as a passageway via which the Constitution is applied to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • India has used Article 370 to extend the Indian Constitution’s provisions to J&K at least 45 times. Through Presidential Orders, India has been able to successfully neutralise the effect of J&K’s unique status.
  • The 1954 order extended almost the entire Constitution to J&K, including most constitutional amendments.
  • Repealing the article in its entirety, on the other hand, might jeopardise the state’s peace, which is already replete with turmoil and extremism.
  • It will radically affect the relationship between the state and the rest of India.
  • It will also pave the way for the abolition of Article 35A, which will allow Indian residents to purchase land and remain permanently in J&K.
  • As a result, the ruling is expected to have a significant impact on the demography, culture, and politics of J&K.
  • Source – The Hindu

4 – Details of Reservation of Seats for Anglo Indians in Lok Sabha:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • Context:
  • The Supreme Court contends that the quota can’t exist indefinitely and asks the Centre for its opinion on the matter.
  • The court indicated in its oral observations that the group had gradually merged with the Indian community and set a preliminary hearing date for November 18.
  • Amending the Constitution:
  • An Anglo-Indian, according to Article 366, is a person whose father or any other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent, but who is or was born in India of parents who are habitually located there and are not there for transitory purposes alone.
  • If the Anglo-Indian community is underrepresented in the Lok Sabha, Article 331 allows the President to appoint two members from the community.
  • If the Governor of a State considers the Anglo Indian community is underrepresented in the Legislative Assembly, he may designate one member of the community to the Assembly under Article 333.
  • Item 334(b): This article was inserted in 1949, prolonging the Anglo Indian community’s reservation in legislative bodies for another 40 years.
  • The National Commission for SCs is established by Article 338 of the Constitution, which investigates any issues about constitutional and other legal safeguards for the Anglo-Indian community and publishes its conclusions to the President.
  • Cancellation of Reservation:
  • The Union Cabinet approved the removal of Anglo-Indian reservations in legislative bodies in 2019.
  • Anglo-Indians were awarded two nominated seats in the Lok Sabha and one nominated seat in the State Legislative Assemblies to ensure proper representation of the community in elected legislative bodies.
  • In India, Anglo-Indians make up a religious, social, and linguistic minority. Because the Anglo-Indian minority was so small and distributed across India, they were given legislative reservations.
  • The reserve of the Anglo-Indian community was extended until 2020 thanks to the 95th Amendment of 2009. This clause was scheduled to be in place until 1960.
  • Source – The Indian Express

5 – About National Investigation Agency:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • Context:
  • In a recruitment case, the NIA has charged a former LeT officer and others.
  • According to the NIA, the case revolves around a scheme devised by the LeT to pay and recruit operatives and OGWs to aid in the planning and execution of terrorist activities in various parts of India, including J&K.
  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) was created by the National Investigation Agency Act of 2008. (NIA).
  • It is a federal agency tasked with investigating and prosecuting criminal activity:
  • Having an impact on India’s sovereignty, security, and integrity, as well as state security and friendly relations with foreign nations.
  • Nuclear and atomic power plants are condemned.
  • Smuggling of high-quality counterfeit Indian currency
  • It implements the international treaties, accords, conventions, and resolutions of the United Nations, its agencies, and other international organisations.
  • It also aims to combat terrorism in India.
  • It is under the control of the Central Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency.
  • The headquarters are in New Delhi.
  • Branches can be found in Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kochi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Kolkata, Raipur, and Jammu.
  • Among NIA’s goals are:
  • Conduct in-depth professional examinations of planned offences utilising cutting-edge scientific investigation methods.
  • Maintaining India’s constitution and legal system.
  • Human rights and individual dignity must be protected at all costs.
  • A professional staff is developed through regular training and exposure to best practises and procedures.
  • Ensure a smooth and efficient trial.
  • Maintaining professional and cordial relationships with state and union territory governments, as well as other law enforcement agencies, as required by the NIA Act.
  • Assist all states and other investigative agencies with terrorism cases.
  • Make a database with all terrorist-related information available to states and other entities.
  • Study and analyse terrorism legislation in other countries, and regularly assess the adequacy of existing laws in India, proposing changes as needed.
  • Scheduled Infractions:
  • The NIA is responsible for investigating and prosecuting a number of offences listed in the Act’s schedule.
  • For example, violations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1962 and the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act of 1967.
  • The NIA’s Demand:
  • Terrorist attacks are thought to have complex inter-state and international links, as well as a possible link to organised crime, such as the smuggling of weapons and drugs, the trafficking of counterfeit Indian rupees, and so on.
  • The agency was established at the federal level following the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks to investigate terrorism and other activities.
  • The mission of NIA is to:
  • The cases are assigned to the NIA by the Central Government in accordance with section VI of the NIA Act, 2008.
  • The Agency investigates the cases on its own.
  • After an investigation, the cases are submitted before the NIA Special Court.
  • The Agency is requesting permission from the Central Government to prosecute the accused under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of 1967 (UAPA) and other specified offences.
  • The sanction is based on the conclusions of the ‘Authority’ created under section 45 (2) of the UAPA.
  • It has the authority to deal with terror-related crimes in other countries without requiring specific authorization.
  • Smuggling and Terrorist Funding:
  • The NIA Act has been revised to include under the definition of terrorism offences involving the importation of high-quality counterfeit Indian currency.
  • To address several aspects of terrorism financing, the NIA has formed a Terror Funding and Fake Currency Cell (TFFC).
  • Terrorist financing and cases of counterfeit Indian rupee notes are tracked by the Cell (FICN).
  • A portion of the investigation into terror financing components of routine NIA cases is also handled by the TFFC.
  • The TFFC Cell verifies the bank accounts of suspects linked to Naxalite organisations.
  • To appropriately deal with situations concerning Naxalite terror financing, there is a dedicated Left Wing Extremism (LWE) squad.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) evaluates NIA’s human, budgetary, and infrastructure needs on a regular basis.
  • Changes Made Recently:
  • The NIA (Amendment) Bill, 2019, was passed by Parliament, amending the original Act of 2008.
  • The law would give the NIA the authority to investigate the following new offences:
  • Smuggling of people
  • Offenses involving fake currency or banknotes
  • Making or selling prohibited weapons
  • Cyber-terrorism, as well as offences under the Explosive Substances Act of 1908.
  • The NIA is responsible for the following:
  • NIA officers have the same authority as regular police officers in India when it comes to investigating such crimes.
  • NIA officers will have the jurisdiction to probe scheduled offences committed outside India under international treaties and domestic laws of other countries.
  • The central government may order the NIA to investigate such cases as if they were committed in India.
  • The Special Court in New Delhi will hear these cases.
  • Appellate Courts:
  • The Central Government establishes one or more Special Courts for the trial of Scheduled Offenses under Sections 11 and 22 of the NIA Act 2008.
  • On the recommendation of the Chief Justice of the High Court, the Special Court shall be presided over by a judge appointed by the Central Government.
  • If the Chief Justice of the High Court recommends it, the Central Government may appoint an additional judge or judges to the Special Court.
  • Jurisdiction of Special Courts:
  • Special Courts have all of the powers of a court of sessions under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
  • Any question about a Special Court’s jurisdiction must be directed to the Central Government, whose judgement is definitive.
  • The Supreme Court can transfer a case pending before a Special Court to any other Special Court within that State or to any other State under exceptional circumstances where a peaceful, fair, impartial, and expeditious trial is not possible.
  • A case pending before a Special Court in a State may be transferred by the High Court to any other Special Court within that State.
  • Problems with Recent Amendments:
  • The Constitution’s Schedule VII lists the maintenance of public order and police forces as responsibility of state.
  • On the other hand, criminal law is on the concurrent list, and national security is on the realms of union list.
  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) has been given jurisdiction by the federal government to investigate allegations of people trafficking, violations of the Explosives Act, and violations of the Arms Act.
  • Not every criminal offence specified in the above statute, however, poses a threat to national security or sovereignty, and governments have the right to address them.
  • The Amendment Bill adds Section 66F of the Information Technology Act to the Schedule of Offenses.
  • Section 66F deals with cyber terrorism:
  • India, on the other hand, lacks data protection legislation and no concept of cyber terrorism.
  • The NIA Act has been changed to empower the agency to investigate crimes committed by foreigners against Indian citizens as well as acts “affecting India’s interest.”
  • However, the phrase “affecting India’s interest” is ambiguous, and governments may exploit it to limit freedom of speech and expression.
  • Furthermore, the NIA’s jurisdictional regulations do not clearly describe “affecting the interest of India” as a crime.
  • Source – The Hindu

 

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