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TOPIC : GS 2 Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Issues and Challenges Pertaining to the Federal Structure, Devolution of Powers and Finances up to Local Levels and Challenges Therein.

The outdated nature of bureaucracy

What is the news?

  • COVID­19 has tested the resilience of all public institutions. Despite its efforts, bureaucracy has emerged as a major concern for the ineffective response to the COVID­19 crisis.
  • This in adequacy is the reflection of the outdated nature of public bureaucracy.

Problems in Bureaucracy

  • Democratic countries are still relying on traditional bureaucracies to perform public policy formulation and implementation
  • These bureaucracies have outlived their relevance.
  • Weberian bureaucracy still prefers a generalist over a specialist.
  • A generalist officer IAS and State civil service officials is deemed an expert and as a result, superior, even if the officer works in one department or ministry today and in another tomorrow.
  • Specialists in every government department have to remain subordinate to the generalist officers. The COVID­19 pandemic has exposed this weakness.
  • Healthcare professionals who are specialists have been made to work under generalist officers
  • The policy options have been left to the generalists when they should be in the hands of the specialists.
  • The justification is that the generalist provides a broader perspective compared to the specialist.
  • Traditional bureaucracy is still stuck with the leadership of position over leadership of function.

Weberian bureaucracy

  • Leadership of function is when a person has expert knowledge of a particular responsibility in a particular situation.
  • The role of the leader is to explain the situation instead of issuing
  • Every official involved in a particular role responds to the situation rather than relying on some dictation from someone occupying a particular position.
  • Weberian bureaucracy prefers leadership based on position.
  • Bureaucracy has become an end in itself rather than a means to an end.
  • The rigid adherence to rules has resulted in the rejection of innovation.
  • The reform often suggested in India is new public management.

Collaborative governance

  • The most appropriate administrative reform is the model of new public governance.
  • This model is based on collaborative governance in which the public sector, private players and civil society, especially public service organisations NGO, work together for effective public service delivery.
  • There is no domination of public bureaucracy as the sole agency in policy formulation and implementation.
  • New public governance a network of social actors and private players would take responsibility in various aspects of governance with public bureaucracy steering the ship rather than rowing it.
  • As part of new public governance, this role has to be institutionalized. It needs a change in the behaviour of bureaucracy.
  • It needs flexibility in hierarchy, a relook at the generalist versus specialist debate, and openness to reforms such as lateral entry and collaboration with a network of social actors.

Way forward

  • All major revolutions with huge implications on public service delivery have come through the collaboration of public bureaucracy with so­called outsiders.
  • These include the Green Revolution M.S. Swaminathan, the White Revolution Verghese Kurien, Aadhaar­enabled services Nandan Nilekani and the IT revolution Sam Pitroda.
  • New public governance is them future of governance, especially public service delivery.

PRELIMS PUNCHERS

  1. Lake Resia

Lake Reschen is an artificial lake in the western portion of South Tyrol, Italy,  south of the Reschen Pass, which forms the border with Austria, and  east of the mountain ridge forming the border with Switzerland. It is the largest lake in the province. Its surface area of makes it also the largest lake above 1,000 m in the Alps. It is fed by the Adige, Rojenbach and Karlinbach and drained by the Adige.

The lake is famous for the steeple of a submerged 14th-century church; when the water freezes, this can be reached on foot.

Sources : https://www.indiatoday.in/trending-news/story/lost-village-emerges-from-italian-lake-after-70-years-see-pics-1804211-2021-05-19

  1. The International Water Association (IWA)

It is a non-profit organization and knowledge hub for the water sector, with over  connecting water professionals worldwide to find solutions to the world’s water challenges. As a network of water professionals and companies, IWA has a membership comprising utilities and leading companies in the fields of water services, infrastructure engineering and consulting as well as more than 10,000 individuals.

IWA works across a wide range of issues covering the full water cycle, with four programmes Digital Water, Basins of the Future, Cities of the Future, Water and Sanitation Services that work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and addressing the threat to sustainable water supplies posed by climate change. The IWA is headquartered in London, UK, with a global secretariat based in Nanjing, China, and a regional office in Chennai, India.

Sources : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-is-world-water-day-celebrated-7239803/

  1. Aerosols

An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or anthropogenic. Examples of natural aerosols are fog or mist, dust, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are particulate air pollutants and smoke.

The liquid or solid particles have diameters typically less than 1 μm larger particles with a significant settling speed make the mixture a suspension, but the distinction is not clear-cut. In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container. Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and combustion technology. Diseases can also spread by means of small droplets in the breath, also called aerosols or sometimes bioaerosols. Aerosol science covers generation and removal of aerosols, technological application of aerosols, effects of aerosols on the environment and people, and other topic

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-aerosols-can-travel-up-to-10m-ventilation-is-the-key-says-government/article34604375.ece

  1. Kīlauea

It is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands. Historically, it is the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the Big Island of Hawaii. Located along the southeastern shore of the island,. Its most recent eruption began on December 20, 2020.

It is the second-youngest product of the Hawaiian hotspot and the current eruptive center of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Because it lacks topographic prominence and its activities historically coincided with those of Mauna Loa, Kīlauea was once thought to be a satellite of its much larger neighbor. Structurally, Kīlauea has a large, fairly recently formed caldera at its summit and two active rift zones. The lava destroyed Hawaii’s largest natural freshwater lake, covered substantial portions of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens, and completely inundated the communities of Kapoho, Vacationland Hawaii and most of the Kapoho Beach Lots.

Sources:https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/kilauea/news/130324/Kilauea-volcano-Hawai-i-lava-lake-crusting-continues.html

PRELIMS QUESTIONS

  1. Consider the following statement with reference to International water Association
  2. It is a autonomous and knowledge hub for the water sector, with over connecting water professionals
  3. The IWA is headquartered in London UK

Select the correct statement using code given below.

(a). 1only                                 (b) 2 only

(c). Both of them                 (d). None of the above

Answer : A

It is a non-profit organization and knowledge hub for the water sector, with over  connecting water professionals worldwide to find solutions to the world’s water challenges. As a network of water professionals and companies, IWA has a membership comprising utilities and leading companies in the fields of water services, infrastructure engineering and consulting as well as more than 10,000 individuals.

IWA works across a wide range of issues covering the full water cycle, with four programmes Digital Water, Basins of the Future, Cities of the Future, Water and Sanitation Services that work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and addressing the threat to sustainable water supplies posed by climate change. The IWA is headquartered in London, UK, with a global secretariat based in Nanjing, China, and a regional office in Chennai, India.

Qn 2.Consider the following statement with reference to Kilauea volcano

1.It is an dormant volcano in the New Zealand

  1. It is formed caldera at its summit and with no active rift zones

Select the correct statement using code given below.

(a). 1only                                 (b) 2 only

(c). Both of them                 (d). None of the above

Answer : D

It is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands. Historically, it is the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the Big Island of Hawaii. Located along the southeastern shore of the island,. Its most recent eruption began on December 20, 2020.

It is the second-youngest product of the Hawaiian hotspot and the current eruptive center of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Because it lacks topographic prominence and its activities historically coincided with those of Mauna Loa, Kīlauea was once thought to be a satellite of its much larger neighbor. Structurally, Kīlauea has a large, fairly recently formed caldera at its summit and two active rift zones. The lava destroyed Hawaii’s largest natural freshwater lake, covered substantial portions of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens, and completely inundated the communities of Kapoho, Vacationland Hawaii and most of the Kapoho Beach Lots.

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