DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS
26 MAY 2022
|. No.||Topic Name||Prelims/Mains|
|1.||WHO IS A FUGITIVE ECONOMIC OFFENDER||Prelims & Mains|
|2.||ABOUT THE COLLEGIUM SYSTEM||Prelims & Mains|
|3.||THE APPOINTMENT OF SPEAKER AND DEPUTY SPEAKER||Prelims & Mains|
|4.||HOT SPRING||Prelims Specific|
|5.||NATIONAL SCHOOL OF DRAMA||Prelims Specific|
- FUGITIVE ECONOMIC OFFENDER:
Topic – Money Laundering Related Issues
- Who is a Fugitive economic offender:
- A person can be named an offender under the law if there is an arrest warrant against him or her for involvement in economic offences involving at least Rs. 100 crore or more and has fled from India to escape legal action.
- What’s the process of extradition:
- The investigating agencies have to file an application in a Special Court under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act containing details of the properties to be confiscated, and any information about the person’s whereabouts
- Then, the Special Court issue a notice to the person to appear at a specified place and date within six weeks from the issue of notice & proceedings shall be terminated if the person appears.
- If the person does not appear, the person would be declared as a Fugitive Economic Offender based on the evidence filed by the investigating agencie
- According to the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018, the person who is declared as a Fugitive Economic Offender can challenge the proclamation in the High Court within 30 days of such declaration
- Source – The Indian Express
- SUPREME COURT COLLEGIUM:
Topic – Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
- The Collegium is pushing hard to fill vacancies.
- There is likely to be a steady flow of recommendation of names for filling vacancies in the 25 High Courts, which have over 465 vacancies.
- This is over 41% of the total sanctioned judicial strength of 1,098 in the High Courts.
- Who appoints judges to the SC:
- In exercise of the powers conferred by clause (2) of Article 124 of the Constitution of India,the appointments are made by the President of India.
- The names are recommended by the Collegium.
- Eligibility to become a Supreme Court judge:
- The norms relating to the eligibility has been envisaged in the Article 124 of the Indian Constitution.
- To become a judge of the Supreme court, an individual should be an Indian citizen.
- In terms of age, a person should not exceed 65 years of age.
- The person should serve as a judge of one high court or more (continuously), for at least five years or the person should be an advocate in the High court for at least 10 years or a distinguished jurist.
- Is the collegium’s recommendation final and binding:
- The collegium sends its final recommendation to the President of India for approval.
- The President can either accept it or reject it.
- In the case it is rejected, the recommendation comes back to the collegium.
- If the collegium reiterates its recommendation to the President, then he/she is bound by that recommendation.
- Common criticism made against the Collegium system:
- Opaqueness and a lack of transparency.
- Scope for nepotism.
- Embroilment in public controversies.
- Overlooks several talented junior judges and advocates.
- Reforms needed:
- A transparent and participatory procedure, preferably by an independent broad-based constitutional body guaranteeing judicial primacy but not judicial exclusivity.
- It should ensure independence, reflect diversity, demonstrate professional competence and integrity.
- Instead of selecting the number of judges required against a certain number of vacancies, the collegium must provide a panel of possible names to the President to appointment in order of preference and other valid criteria.
- Source – The Hindu
- THE APPOINTMENT OF SPEAKER AND DEPUTY SPEAKER:
Topic – Union Parliament:
- How are speakers and deputy speakers selected:
- Article 93 of Lok Sabha and Article 178 of the State Assemblies states that these Houses will elect their two members to be the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker.
- In Lok Sabha and in the legislatures, the President / Governor sets the date for the election of the Speaker, and the Speaker decides the date of the election of the Deputy Speaker.
- Is it mandatory under the Constitution to have a Deputy Speaker:
- Constitutional experts point out that both Articles 93 and 178 use the words “shall” and “as soon as be” – indicating that the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker is not only compulsory, but urgent.
- Their roles and responsibilities:
- The Speaker is “the chief spokesperson of the House, representing its united voice and its only representative outside the house”.
- The Speaker presides over the proceedings of the House and the joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.
- It is the Speaker’s decision that decides whether the Bill is a Finance Bill.
- Usually the Speaker comes from the ruling party.
- In the case of Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker, the position has been different over the years.
- The Constitution has sought to ensure the independence of the Speaker by charging his salary on India’s consolidated fund and the same is not voted on by Parliament.
- During a general debate on the bill, members of parliament should refer only to the Speaker while speaking.
- Once elected, the Deputy Speaker usually holds office until the end of the House.
- Under Article 94 (Section 179 of the legislature), the Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall “resign if he or she ceases to be a member of the House of Representatives”.
- They may resign (each other), or “may be removed from office by a resolution of the House of Representatives passed by a majority of all members of the House at the time”.
- Powers of Deputy Speaker:
- The Deputy Speaker has the same powers as the Speaker when presiding over the sitting of the House.
- All references to the Speaker in the Rules are regarded as indications by the Deputy Speaker in charge.
- States that have set a deadline to hold elections:
- The Constitution does not set a time limit and does not specify the procedure for this election.
- It is up to the legislature to decide how the election will be conducted.
- For example, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh specify the length of time.
- The election of the Speaker must take place as soon as possible after the election.
- A Deputy Speaker will be elected within seven days.
- The rules also stipulate that if a vacancy at these offices occurs after that, elections must be held within seven days of the next session of the legislature.
- Uttar Pradesh:
- There is a 15-day deadline for the election of the Speaker.
- In the case of the Deputy Speaker, the date of the first election must be determined by the Speaker, with 30 days to fill the remaining vacancies.
Source – The Indian Express
- Hot Springs:
Prelims Specific Topic:
- The ‘Hot Springs’ point in Ladakh is one of four points where Indian and Chinese troops retreated face to face during the May 2020 resistance.
- Hot Springs, traditionally known as Kyam, is a camping site and a test site for the Indian border – Patrol Point-15 – on the Chang Chenmo River in Ladakh near the border with China.
- The area got its name from the hot springs in the area.
- It lies in the southeast of the Galwan Valley.
- It is close to Kongka La, the world that shows the Line of Actual Control.
- The passage also marks the border between China’s two most critical provinces – Xinjiang in the north and Tibet in the south.
- Kongka La lies west of China’s G219 highway connecting Xinjiang with Tibet.
- Source – The Hindu
- NATIONAL SCHOOL OF DRAMA:
Prelims Specific Topic
- Set up by the Sangeet Natak Akademias one of its constituent units in 1959.
- In 1975, it became an independent entity and was registered as an autonomous organization under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860, fully financed by the Ministry of Culture.
- National School of Drama organises the Bharat Rang Mahotsav, or the ‘National Theatre Festival’, which it established in 1999.
- It is the annual theatre festival of National School of Drama (NSD), held in New Delhi.
- Today, this festival is acknowledged as the largest theatre festival of Asia, dedicated solely to theatre.
- Source – The Indian Express