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27 MAY 2022

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    PURI HERITAGE CORRIDOR Prelims & Mains
2.    CENTRAL ZOO AUTHORITY Prelims & Mains
3.    ABOUT THE PESA ACT Prelims & Mains




Topic – Indian culture will cover the most important parts of Art Forms, Literature, and Architecture.

  • What exactly is the Puri heritage corridor initiative:
  • The Puri Heritage Project, which began in 2016, intends to turn the holy city of Puri into a worldwide tourist destination.
  • In total, 22 separate projects will be implemented in stages.
  • The state government’s Augmentation of Basic Amenities and Development of Heritage and Architecture in Puri (ABADHA) scheme has provided funding.
  • Puri Lake will be redeveloped, and the Musa River will be revitalised as part of the project.
  • About the Puri Temple:
  • Puri Jagannath Shrine is a Hindu temple in Puri, India.
  • It is an important Vaishnavite temple in Puri, Odisha, dedicated to Jagannath, a manifestation of Sri Krishna.
  • King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty is thought to have built the temple in the 12th century.
  • The ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ of Jagannath Puri temple is where, according to Hindu beliefs, the power of ‘Yama,’ the god of death, has been negated in Puri due to Lord Jagannath’s presence.
  • This shrine is part of the Char Dham pilgrimages and is known as the “White Pagoda” (Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram).
  • The Ratha Yatra, or chariot festival, is held every year at the Puri temple, during which the three main deities are hauled by gigantic, ornately painted temple cars.
  • Source – The Indian Express


Topic – Environment related issues

  • About the Central Zoo Authority (CZA):
  • It is the official body that controls zoos in India.
  • It was founded in 1992.
  • The main objective of the Authority is to complement and strengthen national efforts to conserve the country’s rich ecosystem, especially wildlife, in line with the 1998 Zoo policy.
  • Key activities:
  • It enforces the minimum standards and practices for the protecting and caring of animals.
  • Every zoo in the country needs to get CZA recognition for its set-up and functioning.
  • Source – The Indian Express


Topic – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors

  • About the PESA Act:
  • The PESA Act of 1996 is a federal law that was enacted in 1996.
  • The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA Act) is a law created by the Indian government to ensure self-governance for people residing in India’s Scheduled Areas through traditional Gram Sabhas.
  • Parliament passed it in 1996, and it went into effect on December 24, 1996.
  • In India, the PESA is regarded as the cornerstone of tribal legislation.
  • PESA acknowledges the existing decision-making structure and advocates for people’s self-governance.
  • Background:
  • The 73rd constitutional amendment was passed in 1992 to enhance local self-governance in rural India. A three-tier Panchayati Raj Institution was made into legislation as a result of this modification.
  • However, under Article 243(M), its application to scheduled and tribal territories was limited.
  • The Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996 was enacted in response to the Bhuria Committee’s recommendations in 1995, with the goal of providing tribal self-rule for people residing in India’s scheduled areas.
  • The Gram Sabha has absolute powers under the PESA, although the state legislature has given it an advising role to ensure that Panchayats and Gram Sabhas work properly.
  • Gram Sabha’s authority cannot be revoked by a higher authority, and it will maintain its independence throughout.
  • Gram Sabhas have the following powers and functions:
  • Land purchase, resettlement, and rehabilitation of displaced persons are all subject to required consultation.
  • Traditional beliefs and indigenous communities’ cultures must be safeguarded.
  • Minor forest product ownership
  • Local problems are resolved.
  • Land encroachment is avoided.
  • Village market management
  • Right to regulate liquor production, distillation, and prohibition
  • Controlling money lending is a difficult task.
  • Any additional Scheduled Tribes-related rights.
  • PESA-Related Issues:
  • State governments are required to establish state laws in accordance with this national statute for their Scheduled Areas. As a result, the PESA was only partially implemented.
  • In Adivasi areas, like as Jharkhand, the partial implementation has harmed self-governance.
  • PESA failed to deliver, according to many experts, due to a lack of clarity, legal flaws, bureaucratic indifference, a lack of political will, opposition to change in the power structure, and so on.
  • According to social audits undertaken across the state, several developmental initiatives were approved on paper by Gram Sabha without any debate or decision-making taking place.
  • Source – The Hindu

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • The Jal Shakti Department has issued guidelines for the safe rescue and release of trapped dolphins in the Ganges River.
  • This document has been prepared by the Turtle Survival Alliance and the Uttar Pradesh Government Department of Environment, Forestry and Climate Change (EFCCD).
  • The manual has been approved by the IUCN Cetacean Specialist Group.
  • About the Ganges Dolphin:
  • The Ganges dolphin is India’s national aquatic animal.
  • It is listed as ‘endangered’ under the IUCN Red List Assessments, under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972), under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
  • These species, estimated at 4,000 worldwide, are found mainly on the Indian subcontinent.
  • The Ganges dolphin can live only in freshwater and is invisible to the naked eye.
  • Threats:
  • Dolphins often accidentally enter the canals of northern India and cannot swim upstream.
  • They are at risk of being harmed by humans.
  • Source – The Hindu



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