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04 MAY 2022

No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    Details of India Denmark Business Forum Meeting Prelims & Mains
2.    About the Prison Reforms in India Prelims & Mains
3.    Details the Solid Waste Management in India Prelims & Mains
4.    About the UGC Guidelines to tackle mental issues among children Prelims & Mains
5.    Details of the Registrar General of India Prelims Specific Topic


1 – Details of the India Denmark Business Forum Meeting: 


International Relations

  • Context:
  • Along with Prime Minister of Denmark, H.E. Ms. Mette Frederiksen, and H.R.H. Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi attended the India-Denmark Business Forum at the Confederation of Danish Industry.
  • The Meeting’s Details:
  • The Prime Minister emphasised the complementing skillsets of the two economies, urging Danish companies to take advantage of India’s tremendous opportunities in areas such as green technologies, cold chains, waste to wealth, shipping and ports, among others. He emphasised India’s pro-business position and invited both sides’ business communities to explore collaboration opportunities.
  • The importance of the business community in bridging the gap between the two countries was emphasised by Prime Minister Frederiksen.
  • The event featured businesses from both countries in categories such as:
  • When it comes to green technology, three words spring to mind: innovation, digitization, and green technology.
  • Energy Independence and Renewable Energy
  • Water, Agriculture, and the Environment
  • The importance of infrastructure, transportation, and services cannot be overstated.
  • Source – The Hindu

2 – About the Prison Reforms in India:


Indian Judiciary

  • Context:
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has addressed the issue of overcrowding in Indian prisons and the need for improvements.
  • The Situation in Indian Prisons:
  • Long-standing structural constraints in Indian jails include overcrowding, understaffing, and underfunding, as well as violent clashes.
  • In 2019, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released Prison Statistics India 2016, which details the situation of Indian inmates.
  • In 2016, more than half of all undertrials in India were kept for less than six months, making it one of the world’s largest populations of people awaiting trial.
  • According to the report, at the end of 2016, there were 4,33,033 convicts in prison, with 68 percent of them awaiting trial.
  • This suggests that improper arrests and insufficient legal counsel during remand hearings may be contributing to the high number of undertrials in the total jail population.
  • Problems in Indian Prisons:
  • Preventive Detention: The number of persons arrested under administrative (or “prevention”) detention legislation in Jammu and Kashmir is on the rise.
  • In 2016, there were 431 detainees compared to 90 in 2015. This represents a 300 percent increase.
  • Administrative, or ‘preventive,’ custody is used by authorities to imprison someone without charge or trial, bypassing conventional criminal justice procedures.
  • Section 436A of the C.R.P.C. is not well known: There is a mismatch between the number of offenders eligible for release and those who are actually freed under Section 436A of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
  • In 2016, just 929 of the 1,557 people awaiting trial who were eligible for parole under Section 436A were released.
  • Furthermore, according to a study conducted by Amnesty India, prison staff are frequently unaware of this section and are hesitant to enforce it.
  • Unnatural Deaths in Prison: The number of “unnatural” deaths in prison more than doubled between 2015 and 2016, from 115 to 231.
  • Inmate suicide rates also increased by 28%, from 77 suicides in 2015 to 102 suicides in 2016.
  • A person is 1.5 times more likely to commit suicide in prison than they are outside, according to the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). This could indicate how significant mental health concerns are in Indian prisons.
  • Only one mental health specialist was available for every 21,650 inmates in 2016, with psychologists/psychiatrists available in only six states and one union territory.
  • Furthermore, according to the NCRB, 6,013 persons with mental diseases were in prison in 2016.
  • Each jail should have a welfare officer and a law officer, according to the Prison Act of 1894 and the Prisoner Act of 1900, however these officers have yet to be hired. This explains why, in the preceding century, jails were given such a low political and budgetary priority.
  • Recommendation for Prison Reform
  • The Supreme Court-appointed Justice Amitava Roy (retd.) Committee has offered the following recommendations for prison reform.
  • In the event of congestion, take the following steps:
  • Speedy Trial: Using a speedy trial is one of the most effective ways to combat the unreasonable problem of overcrowding.
  • Attorney-to-Prisoner Ratio: Ideally, one lawyer should be assigned to every 30 inmates, although this is not currently the case.
  • Petty offences that have been pending for more than five years should be handled in special fast-track courts.
  • Moreover, accused persons charged with minor offences who have been granted bail but cannot procure surety should be released on a Personal Recognizance (PR) Bond.
  • Avoid Adjournment: When there are witnesses present, an adjournment should be avoided, and the concept of plea bargaining, in which the accused admits guilt in exchange for a lesser sentence, should be promoted.
  • In the case of detainees:
  • Every new prisoner should be allowed one free phone call per day to his family members to help him get through his first week in jail.
  • Providing professional legal help to inmates, as well as taking steps to give offenders with vocational training and education.
  • Video conferencing was employed as part of the trial.
  • Alternatives: Instead of imprisoning offenders, judges may be allowed to use their “discretionary powers” to impose penalties such as “fine and admonition.”
  • Judges may also be persuaded to release criminals on probation before or after trial in exceptional situations.
  • Filling Vacancies: The Supreme Court should issue instructions instructing authorities to start the permanent recruitment process within three months and complete it within a year.
  • There are contemporary cooking facilities and canteens where necessary items can be acquired for food.
  • In 2017, the Indian Law Commission advocated releasing undertrials on bail after serving a third of their maximum sentence for offences punishable by up to seven years in prison.
  • Source – The Indian Express

3 – Details of the Solid Waste Management in India:


Environmental Conservation related issues

  • Context:
  • In recent years, Delhi’s landfill sites have grown to enormous proportions.
  • The current situation is as follows:
  • The majority of megacity dumpsites have outgrown their capacity and the 20-meter height restriction. Over 10,000 hectares of urban land in India are thought to be buried in these dumpsites.
  • Per capita waste generation in Indian cities ranges from 200 to 600 grammes per day.
  • Only 75-80 percent of municipal waste is collected, and only 22-28 percent of that is handled and disposed.
  • The result:
  • Methane emissions occur from the proliferation of open garbage dumps with no ventilation, which absorb the sun’s heat, warm the atmosphere, and contribute to global warming.
  • Leachate, a black liquid that seeps out of rubbish over a 25- to 30-year period as it decomposes, contaminates land and groundwater.
  • Foul odours from waste rotting in airless piles and smoke from flames that erupt on a regular basis are further consequences of dumping trash in the open.
  • The lack of bottom liners and sideliners in older landfills allowed leachate to flow into the ground, polluting groundwater and land.
  • The dumpsites have become a site for public dumping because they are open and accessible to the public, increasing the situation.
  • The legal system of India is complex.
  • Regulations for Solid Waste Management in 2016:
  • These rules, which replace the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules of 2000, now apply to urban agglomerations, census towns, notified industrial townships, and other non-municipal areas.
  • They emphasise waste separation at the source, the manufacturer’s responsibility for sanitary and packaging waste disposal, and bulk generator collection, disposal, and processing fees as well as user fees.
  • It is also suggested that biodegradable trash be processed, handled, and disposed of on-site as much as possible by composting or bio-methanation, with the remainder of the garbage being delivered to the waste collectors or agency as directed by the local authorities.
  • The guidelines urge the use of compost, waste conversion to energy, and landfill site and capacity factors to be adjusted.
  • The government has also formed a Central Monitoring Committee to supervise the overall execution of the laws, which will be chaired by the Secretary of the Ministry of Environment, Food, and Climate Change.
  • According to the Rules for the Safe Treatment of Legacy Waste, all open dumpsites and already operational dumpsites in India must adopt bio-remediation and bio-mining.
  • Aside from that, under Article 51 A (g) of the Indian Constitution, every Indian citizen has a fundamental responsibility to protect and develop the natural environment, which includes forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, as well as to have compassion for all living creatures.
  • Next Steps:
  • Setting precise technical standards: Making bio-mining and bio-remediation mandatory in areas where they can be employed is crucial. Municipalities should not be allowed to decide whether or not the aforementioned tactics can be implemented due to geographical constraints.
  • Bioremediation and biomining are superior, simple techniques that are both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. The best part is that the site, which was previously utilised as a landfill, is now completely available for various use.
  • If capping is required, it should be done scientifically with underground pits that have a good bottom and sideliners, as well as appropriate pipe and gas extraction systems to prevent leachate and gases from escaping.
  • Waste management decentralisation: Waste management decentralisation is crucial. Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh, and Vellore, Tamil Nadu, are two great examples of this, with rubbish being collected decentralizedly, decomposed naturally, and then planted.
  • Source – The Hindu

4 – About the UGC Guidelines to tackle mental issues among children:


Education related issues

  • Context:
  • The University Grants Commission (UGC) has issued draught recommendations requiring colleges and universities to establish dedicated mental health counselling cells to help students cope with academic and peer pressure, stress, and depression.
  • Under the rules, which are due to be released for public comment on Wednesday, these cells will also be required to store separate records of children who appear to be “more susceptible and stress-prone.”
  • This method can also be used to determine the dropout rate.
  • The Guidelines are as follows:
  • “Subsequent interventions can be devised accordingly,” according to the suggestions titled “Promotion of Physical Fitness, Sports, Students’ Health, Welfare, Psychological and Emotional Well Being.”
  • Every higher education institution is required to maintain a Students Services Centre (SSC) that deals with and manages stress and emotional adjustment concerns.
  • It must have standardised, systematic procedures to provide necessary support to students, particularly those from rural backgrounds, female students, students from diverse cultural backgrounds, and students with special needs, according to the guidelines.
  • The guidelines’ main purpose is to encourage students to be physically active and participate in sports activities, as well as to instil a positive attitude and develop a supportive student network.
  • These are required to boost pupils’ mental health in order to protect them from various sorts of stress, pressure, and behavioural disorders.
  • Source – The Indian Express

5 – Details of the Registrar General of India:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • Context:
  • According to numbers issued by the Registrar General of India, death registration increased by 6% during the epidemic year.
  • About:
  • The Census Organization was constituted on an ad hoc basis for each census until 1951.
  • The Government of India established an organisation within the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1949, led by the Registrar General and ex-Officio Census Commissioner for India, to build a systematic collection of data on population number, growth, and other matters.
  • Later, this office was given the responsibility of executing the Registration of Births and Deaths Act of 1969 across the country.
  • It is responsible for organising, conducting, and analysing India’s demographic surveys, such as the Census of India and the Linguistic Survey of India.
  • The Indian census provides information on the size, distribution, socioeconomic, demographic, and other elements of the country’s population.
  • India’s decennial census had been held 15 times as of 2011.
  • After being done every ten years under British Viceroy Lord Mayo since 1872, the first thorough census was taken in 1881.
  • The Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, which is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India, performed the census after 1949.
  • Source – The Hindu


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