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TOPIC : GS 3 Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life

Department of telecommunications gave permission to Telecom service Providers to conduct trials for the use and application of 5G technology.
What is the news?
Chinese firms such as Huawei, ZTE have been kept outside from this formal order. As these firms were not selected by the domestic telecom Service Providers.
Rural and Semi-Urban areas will also be taken up for the trials.
What is 5G?
It is the next generation cellular technology that will provide faster and more reliable communication with ultra-low latency.
With 5G the peak network data speeds are expected to be in the range of 2-20 Gigabit per second (Gbps).
Who does it benefit?
With 5G technology, consumers will be able to download data heavy content such as 8K movies and games with better graphics in just a few seconds.
5G is expected to form the backbone of emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine to machine communications.
Also, it would be supporting a much larger range of applications and services, including driverless vehicles, tele-surgery and real time data analytics.
The ultra-low latency offered by 5G makes the technology desirable for such use cases.

What is latency
Latency is the amount of time data takes to travel between its source and destination.
The technology will extend the use of wireless technologies — for the first time — across completely new sectors of the economy from industrial to commercial, educational, health care, agricultural, financial and social sectors.
5G’s value for India may be even higher than in advanced countries because of the lower levels of investments in physical infrastructure.
5G may offer ‘leapfrog’ opportunities by providing ‘smart infrastructure’ that offers lower cost and faster infrastructure delivery.
One of the primary applications of 5G will be implementation of sensor-embedded network that will allow real time relay of information across fields such as manufacturing, consumer durables and agriculture.
It can also help make transport infrastructure more efficient by making it smart by enabling vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication.

What will be the economic impact?
5G is expected to create a cumulative economic impact of $1 trillion in India by 2035. Also, the revenue potential in India will be above $27 billion by 2026.

When will it be launched?
In April, South Korea and the U.S. became the first countries to commercially launch 5G services.
The Central government had set a target of 2020 for the commercial launch of 5G services, largely in line with rest of the world.
The government plans to undertake spectrum auction in the current calendar year.

Are there any apprehensions?
Two of the three private telcos, Bharti Airtel and Vodafone have expressed concern about auction stating that the reserve price of these airwaves is very high.
Telecom industry body Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI) has Telecom industry body Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI).
Besides the spectrum, 5G will require a fundamental change to the core architecture of the communication system.
A report has stated that industry might require an additional investment of $60-70 billion to seamlessly implement 5G networks.
National Digital Communications Policy-2018 (NDCP-2018 The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has  approved the National Digital Communications Policy-2018 (NDCP-2018) and re-designation of the Telecom Commission as the &quot Digital Communications Commission”.
Mains question
Discuss the pros and cons of introduction of 5G technology in India
Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/china-expresses-concern-regret-over-indias-5g-exclusion/article34491371.ece

 

PRELIMS PUNCHERS
1. Tatar Strait
It is a strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia of South-East Russia, connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on the north with the Sea of Japan on the south. It is 632 kilometres long
The toponym is derived from the medieval ethnonym Tartars, which was applied to various Mongol semi-nomadic empires. Since the Manchus’ rise to prominence in 1644, the name “Tartars” became applied to them as well and Manchuria became known to the Europeans as the “Chinese Tartary”.
Sources: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-way-out-of-undelineated-borders/article31893324.ece

2. Putola Nach
Traditional string puppet theatre from Assam in north-east India. Putala nach remains popular in Assam whereas other forms of puppetry and shadow theatre have disappeared. The Ramayana, either in its entirety or by episodes, is performed, as well as scenes from the Mahabharata. The puppeteers are happy to add dialogues or chants taken from bhaona, the local traditional theatre. In this regard, some traditional performances include contemporary educational themes such as the fight against deforestation or family planning messages. The sculpted form of the puppets, their costumes and manipulation vary according to regional style.

The putala nach is also called putala bhaona due to its ancient link (16th century) with bhaona theatre. Today, there are troupes and traditional families performing putala nach, some of whom are master puppeteers recognized in their communities and sometimes nationally for their contribution to the art of puppetry.
Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/assam-string-puppetry-rides-covid-campaign-for-revival/article34458600.ece

3. Eravikulam National Park
It is a national park located along the Western Ghats in the Idukki and Ernakulam district of Kerala in India. It is the first national park in Kerala.
Eravikulam National Park is administered by the Kerala Department of Forests and Wildlife, Munnar Wildlife Division, which also runs the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Anamudi Shola National Park, Pambadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary. Twenty six species of mammals have been recorded in the park including the largest surviving population of Nilgiri tahr, estimated at about 750 individuals. The terrain consists of high altitude grasslands interspersed with sholas. Anamudi the highest peak in India south of the Himalayas is inside this park. Many perennial streams criss-cross the park. They merge to form tributaries of the Periyar river in the west and of the Cauvery River in the east.
Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/eravikulam-park-opened-for-visitors/article34231636.ece

4. RTS-S
RTS-S is a vaccine against malaria that has been in development for more than 30 years. It is being developed by Walter Reed Institute of Research and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation with the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative. The vaccine is designed to stop the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite from entering the liver and preventing the subsequent deadly blood stages.
Till date, it is the only vaccine to reduce malaria in children. However, it doesn’t have high efficacy.
Sources : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-a-malaria-vaccine-candidate-has-raised-new-hope-and-what-went-into-its-making-7300888/

PRELIMS QUESTIONS
1. Consider the following statement with reference to Eravikulam National Park
1. It is a national park located along the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu
2.It runs boundary the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park and Anamudi Shola National Park
Select the correct statement using code given below.
(a). 1only (b) 2 only
(c). Both of them (d). None of the above
Answer: B

It is a national park located along the Western Ghats in the Idukki and Ernakulam district of Kerala in India. It is the first national park in Kerala.
Eravikulam National Park is administered by the Kerala Department of Forests and Wildlife, Munnar Wildlife Division, which also runs the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Anamudi Shola National Park, Pambadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary. Twenty six species of mammals have been recorded in the park including the largest surviving population of Nilgiri tahr, estimated at about 750 individuals. The terrain consists of high altitude grasslands interspersed with sholas. Anamudi the highest peak in India south of the Himalayas is inside this park. Many perennial streams criss-cross the park. They merge to form tributaries of the Periyar river in the west and of the Cauvery River in the east.

2. Tatar Strait is situated in
a. Russia
b. North Korea
c. South Korea
d. Ukraine
Answer: A
It is a strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia of South-East Russia, connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on the north with the Sea of Japan on the south. It is 632 kilometres long
The toponym is derived from the medieval ethnonym Tartars, which was applied to various Mongol semi-nomadic empires. Since the Manchus’ rise to prominence in 1644, the name “Tartars” became applied to them as well and Manchuria became known to the Europeans as the “Chinese Tartary”.

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