11th November 2021

S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About Irrawaddy Dolphin Prelims & Mains
2.    About the Raptor Species Prelims & Mains
3.    Process of Renunciation of Indian Citizenship Prelims & Mains
4.    Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) Act of 2016 Prelims & Mains
5.    PM Poshan Shakti Nirman Scheme Prelims Specific
6.    About Meningitis Prelims Specific


  1. Irrawaddy Dolphin: 


Topic – Conservation related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • Recently, Irrawaddy dolphin have been found dead in Chilika Lake. 
  • This is the 8th dolphin death in Odisha in 8 months.
  • About Irrawaddy Dolphins:
  • Irrawaddy dolphins fall under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and mentioned in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Endangered Species.
  • Found in coastal areas in South and Southeast Asia, and in three rivers: the Irrawaddy (Myanmar), the Mahakam (Indonesian Borneo) and the Mekong (China).
  • The concentrated lagoon populations are found in Chilika Lake in Odisha, and Songkhla Lake in southern Thailand.
  • About Chilika Lake:
  • Chilika is Asia’s largest and world’s second largest lagoon.
  • It is the largest wintering ground for migratory birds on the Indian sub-continent and is home to a number of threatened species of plants and animals.
  • In 1981, Chilika Lake was designated the first Indian wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.
  • Major attraction at Chilika is Irrawaddy dolphinswhich are often spotted off Satpada Island.
  • The large Nalabana Island (Forest of Reeds) covering about 16 sq km in the lagoon area was declared a bird sanctuary in 1987.
  • Kalijai Temple –Located on an island in the Chilika Lake.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About the habitats and IUCN status of Irrawaddy dolphins.
  • Their global distribution.
  • About Chilika lake.
  • Source – Down to Earth
  1. About the Raptor Species:


Topic – Conservation related issues

  • Why in News:
  • 160 species of birds of prey endangered worldwide
  • Around 30 per cent of the 557 raptor species around the world are threatened by extinction to some degree, according to a new study.
  • The Philippine eagle, the hooded vulture and the Annobonscops-owl were among the 166 species facing some degree of threat, the study found.
  • The new analysis by International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and BirdLife International, a global initiative to protect birds and wildlife by non-profits, was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Threats to the Birds of Prey:
  • The threats to the birds of prey are a result of habitat loss, pollution, toxic substances, human–wildlife conflicts, collisions with aerial structures and electrocution by power lines and climate change.
  • Migratory birds of prey are at risk to these threats due to long annual journeys from their breeding grounds to wintering areas and back.
  • The population of Philippine eagles, the largest variety of eagles in the world, decreased rapidly in the last decades due to extensive deforestation. 
  • Some vulture populations have declined by over 95 per cent in Asian countries such as India because of the widespread use of diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory drug.
  • What is Raptors MOU:
  • The CMS Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia(Raptors MOU) aims to promote internationally coordinated actions to achieve the favourable conservation status of migratory birds of prey throughout their range in the African-Eurasian region, and to reverse their decline when and where appropriate.
  • The Raptors MOU is one of several instruments operating under the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).
  • The MoU seeks willingness of the signatory range states for working for conservation of the raptor species and their habitats.
  • India signed Raptor MOU in 2016.
  • Raptor MoU is also in conformity with the provisions of the existing Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About Raptor Species
  • Threats to Raptor Species
  • International efforts for the conservation of Raptor Species
  • About Raptor MOU
  • Source – Down to Earth
  1. Process of Renunciation of Indian Citizenship:


Topic – Citizenship related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) had recently simplified the process for Indians who want to renounce their citizenship
  • Provisions have been made for applicants to upload documents online, with an upper limit of 60 days for the renunciation process to be completed.
  • About Citizenship:
  • In India, Articles 5 – 11 of the Constitution deals with the concept of citizenship. The term citizenship entails the enjoyment of full membership of any State in which a citizen has civil and political rights.
  • Termination of citizenship is possible in three ways according to the Citizenship Act, 1955.
  • Renunciation: If any citizen of India who is also a national of another country renounces his Indian citizenship through a declaration in the prescribed manner, he ceases to be an Indian citizen.
  • Termination: Indian citizenship can be terminated if a citizen knowingly or voluntarily adopts the citizenship of any foreign country.
  • Deprivation: The government of India can deprive a person of his citizenship in some cases. It is applicable only in the case of citizens who have acquired the citizenship by registration, naturalization, or only by Article 5 (c)
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Constitutional Provisions regarding Citizenship
  • OCI vs NRI
  • Source – The Indian Express
  1. Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) Act of 2016:


Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections:

  • Why in News:
  • The Supreme Court has recently stepped in to protect homebuyers from exploitation by builders who delay transfer of possession and often redraft delivery schedules.
  • Need for:
  • A petition was filed on the lack of a “uniform or model” form for agreements entered into among builders, agents and buyers.
  • The petition said the Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) Act of 2016had hardly been implemented.
  • Often hard-earned savings of ordinary citizens who aspired to have their own homes were invested. But many families became penniless waiting for a roof over their heads that the builders had promised them.
  • The petitioner drew court’s attention to Section 41 and 42 of the RERA:
  • Section 41 mandated the establishment of a Central Advisory Council.
  • Section 42 said the Council would ensure the implementation of the Act, drive major policy changes, assure that consumer interests were not thwarted by builders and promoters and craft the faster growth of the real estate sector.
  • The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act 2016:
  • It is aimed at bringing in transparency and redefining the engagement between various stakeholders.
  • Key provisions:
  • A requirement for developers to now register projects with RERA prior to any advertisement and sale.
  • Developers are also expected to have all sanction plans approved and regulatory clearances in place prior to commencement of sale. Subsequent changes have to be approved by a majority of buyers and the regulator.
  • The Act ambitiously stipulates an electronic system, maintained on the website of RERA, where developers are expected to update on a quarterly basis the status of their projects, and submit regular audits and architectural reports.
  • It requires developers to maintain separate escrow accounts in relation to each project and deposit 70% of the collections in such an account to ensure that funds collected are utilised only for the specific project.
  • The Act also requires real estate brokers and agents to register themselves with the regulator.
  • The Act also attempts to establish an adjudicatory mechanism for the speedy redressal of disputes. RERA and the Appellate Tribunal are expected to decide on complaints within an ambitious period of 60 days.
  • Significance of the Act:
  • The Act has been described by the Centre as an attempt at cleaning up the real estate sector, ushering in transparency, accountability and fair-play among stakeholders.
  • This law will empower the consumer while boosting the credibility of developers.
  • It is widely felt that the Act will shift housing demand at least in the immediate term towards the organised players, better-equipped as they are to fulfil various stipulations. Most such players have welcomed the Act, saying that it will bridge the trust deficit.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About RERA.
  • Key provisions.
  • Important organizations established under it.
  • Source – The Hindu
  1. PM Poshan Shakti Nirman Scheme:

Prelims Specific

  • Why in News:
  • The existing Mid-Day Meal scheme, which provides hot meals to students, has been recently renamed as the National Scheme for PM Poshan Shakti Nirman.
  • About the Mid-Day meal scheme:
  • The National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in 1995.
  • Objective: To enhance enrolment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improve nutritional levels among children.
  • In 2001 it became a cooked Mid Day Meal Scheme.
  • The Scheme covers children of classes I-VIII studying in government, government-aided schools, special training centres (STC) and madarsas/ maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA).
  • It is the largest school feeding programme in the world.
  • It is covered by the National Food Security Act, 2013.
  • Source – The Hindu
  1. Meningitis:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • The Global Roadmap to Defeat Meningitis by 2030 was recently released by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners.
  • This is the first-ever global strategy to defeat meningitis.
  • It aims to eliminate epidemics of bacterial meningitis and to reduce deaths by 70 per cent and halve the number of cases.
  • Significance: The strategy could save more than 200,000 lives annually and significantly reduce disability caused by the disease.
  • About Meningitis:
  • Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
  • It is predominantly caused by bacterial and viral infection.
  • Meningitis caused by bacterial infection causes around 250,000 deaths a year and can lead to fast-spreading epidemics.
  • It kills a tenth of those infected — mostly children and young people — and leaves a fifth with long-lasting disability.
  • Source – WHO Website