15th November 2021

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    Lack of manpower in Probe Agencies Prelims & Mains
2.    About the COP 26 Prelims & Mains
3.    The appointment of speaker and deputy speaker Prelims & Mains
4.    About the Nebra Sky Disc Prelims Specific
5.    Hot Springs Prelims Specific


  1. Lack of manpower in probe agencies: 


Topic – Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

  • Why in News:
  • It was decided recently through an ordinance passed by the Central Government that the chiefs of CBI and ED can now be appointed for 5 years.
  • Until recently, there has been a long-term issue of pending vacanciesin probe agencies such as the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
  • Like judiciary even probe agencies suffered from the dearth of manpower and infrastructure.
  • They are overburdened.
  • For example, one trial court handles 1,000 cases.
  • Some of these cases, investigated by agencies such as the CBI and the Enforcement Directorate (ED), have been pending for over a decade.
  • Data on pending cases against legislators:
  • 51 MPs and 71 MLAs were accused of offences under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), 2002.
  • Out of the 121 cases pending trial against MPs and MLAs before the CBI courts across the country, 58 were punishable with life imprisonment.
  • In 45 cases, even the charges have not been framed, though the offences were alleged to have been committed several years ago
  • A total of 37 CBI cases against legislators were continuing in the stage of investigation for years on end now.
  • Challenges and causes for frequent delays:
  • The High Courts intervened and granted stay of the trial.
  • ED cases were held up because they spanned to tax havens abroad, which refused to cooperate with investigations.
  • Insufficient special courts to exclusively try cases against MPs/MLAs.
  • Shortage of prosecutors and latches in prosecution.
  • Delayed investigation.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Powers and functions of ED
  • Powers and functions of CBI
  • Source –
  1. About the COP 26:


Topic – Conservation related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • The COP 26 is expected to enhance its focus on reducing the carbon emissions sharply till 2030, rather than focussing on the net zero targets till 2050, because it is a very distant reality.
  • About the COP 26:
  • COP 26 has commenced in Glasgow from 31st October, 2021.
  • Many preparatory meetings and high level bilateral talks have taken place before the COP 26 meeting to persuade countries for further enhancing their emission reduction targets under the Paris Agreement so that the carbon emissions can sharply be reduced by 2030.
  • Some countries have responded positively, yet some other very high contributing countries are not so keen to raise their targets and are very short of their current targets as well.
  • Alternative approach to a Net Zero target:
  • The recently released IPCC report, titled ‘AR6 Report’ highlights that it is much more important to reduce the global emissions by 45% by 2030 as compared to 2010 levels to keep the rise in temperature below the target of 1.5 degree Celsius, than to focus too much on net zero emission target by 2050.
  • Issues associated with the net zero target:
  • Net Zero approach doesn’t pay enough and required attention on the principle of ‘Common but differentiated responsibilities’ put forth by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • According to CBDR, as the developed countries are responsible for over 75% of the global GHG burden, so they must bear the majority of the burden of reducing the emissions, while the developing countries should receive technological and financial aid from the developed countries.
  • Hence, all the countries, either developed or developing cannot be expected to reach a level of net zero together by 2050, on which the principle of net zero focusses on the most.
  • That is why, what is more important is to focus on reducing the GHG emissions by 45% till 2030 as compared to the 2010 levels, as backed by the IPCC report to keep a check on the rise of global temperatures.
  • Issues associated:
  • According to the UN NDC report, even if all the updated NDC targets under the Paris Agreement are taken into account, the decrease in GHG levels till 2030 is expected to be only 16.3 % as compared to the 2010 levels.
  • While the IPCC report has advocated for at least a 45% reduction in GHG emissions till 2030 as compared to 2010 levels to keep the rise in global temperatures below 1.5 degree Celsius.
  • That is why, there’s a need to focus extensively on reducing the GHG emissions by 2030 by 45% rather than focussing too much on the net zero target till 2050.
  • Way Forward:
  • COP 26 must extensively focus on reducing the GHG emissions by 45 % till 2030 as compared to 2010 levels, rather than focusing too much on achieving net zero targets till 2050.
  • India should subsequently raise its INDC targets under the Paris Agreement to also include the target of ‘reduction in emissions intensity (which is ratio of emission to GDP) by around 35% to 40% till 2030 as compared to 2005 levels.
  • India can achieve this target quite easily as India has been enhancing its reduction target by around 2 % per annum as per the current INDC targets.
  • Additionally, India can also commit to achieve the net zero target by 2075.
  • Subsequently, if India enhances its tree and forest cover substantially over the years, and also progressively expands its renewable energy & electric vehicle ecosystem, thereby reducing its dependence on thermal power plants and fossil fuels, India can also achieve the target of ‘net zero’ GHG emissions by 2050.
  • Source –
  1. The appointment of speaker and deputy speaker:


Topic – Union Parliament:

  • How are speakers and deputy speakers selected:
  • Article 93 of Lok Sabha and Article 178 of the State Assemblies states that these Houses will elect their two members to be the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker.
  • In Lok Sabha and in the legislatures, the President / Governor sets the date for the election of the Speaker, and the Speaker decides the date of the election of the Deputy Speaker.
  • Is it mandatory under the Constitution to have a Deputy Speaker:
  • Constitutional experts point out that both Articles 93 and 178 use the words “shall” and “as soon as be” – indicating that the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker is not only compulsory, but urgent.
  • Their roles and responsibilities:
  • The Speaker is “the chief spokesperson of the House, representing its united voice and its only representative outside the house”.
  • The Speaker presides over the proceedings of the House and the joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.
  • It is the Speaker’s decision that decides whether the Bill is a Finance Bill.
  • Usually the Speaker comes from the ruling party.
  • In the case of Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker, the position has been different over the years.
  • The Constitution has sought to ensure the independence of the Speaker by charging his salary on India’s consolidated fund and the same is not voted on by Parliament.
  • During a general debate on the bill, members of parliament should refer only to the Speaker while speaking.
  • Duration:
  • Once elected, the Deputy Speaker usually holds office until the end of the House.
  • Under Article 94 (Section 179 of the legislature), the Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall “resign if he or she ceases to be a member of the House of Representatives”.
  • They may resign (each other), or “may be removed from office by a resolution of the House of Representatives passed by a majority of all members of the House at the time”.
  • Powers of Deputy Speaker:
  • The Deputy Speaker has the same powers as the Speaker when presiding over the sitting of the House.
  • All references to the Speaker in the Rules are regarded as indications by the Deputy Speaker in charge.
  • States that have set a deadline to hold elections:
  • The Constitution does not set a time limit and does not specify the procedure for this election.
  • It is up to the legislature to decide how the election will be conducted.
  • For example, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh specify the length of time.
  • Haryana:
  • The election of the Speaker must take place as soon as possible after the election.
  • A Deputy Speaker will be elected within seven days.
  • The rules also stipulate that if a vacancy at these offices occurs after that, elections must be held within seven days of the next session of the legislature.
  • Uttar Pradesh:
  • There is a 15-day deadline for the election of the Speaker.
  • In the case of the Deputy Speaker, the date of the first election must be determined by the Speaker, with 30 days to fill the remaining vacancies.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Election of Speaker & Deputy Speaker.
  • Responsibilities & Power of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
  • Reasons for removal.
  • Related committees.
  • Source – The Indian Express
  1. About the Nebra Sky Disc:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • The British Museum in London has recently decided to exhibit an ancient artifact called the Nebra Sky Disc, which is considered to be the world’s oldest concrete exhibition.
  • About 3,600 years ago, this disc was traditionally buried with two swords, axes, two horizontal arm rings, and a single copper plate near Nebra in Germany.
  • The burial of these objects is thought to have taken place as a dedication to the gods.
  • Source – Science Reporter Magazine
  1. Hot Springs:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • The ‘Hot Springs’ point in Ladakh is one of four points where Indian and Chinese troops retreated face to face during the May 2020 resistance.
  • Hot Springs, traditionally known as Kyam, is a camping site and a test site for the Indian border – Patrol Point-15 – on the Chang Chenmo River in Ladakh near the border with China.
  • The area got its name from the hot springs in the area.
  • It lies in the southeast of the Galwan Valley.
  • It is close to Kongka La, the world that shows the Line of Actual Control.
  • The passage also marks the border between China’s two most critical provinces – Xinjiang in the north and Tibet in the south.
  • Kongka La lies west of China’s G219 highway connecting Xinjiang with Tibet.