20th November 2021

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    Guru Nanak Dev Jayanti Prelims & Mains
2.    Puri Heritage Corridor Prelims & Mains
3.    How a law is repealed Prelims & Mains
4.    About the PESA Act Prelims & Mains
5.    About the Operation Sankalp Prelims Specific


  1. Guru Nanak Dev Jayanti:


Topic – Indian Culture.

  • Why in News:
  • The birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, also known as Guru Nanak’s Prakash Utsav and Guru Nanak Dev Ji Gurpurab, is commemorated on Guru Nanak Dev Ji Jayanti.
  • On the full moon day of Kartik month, also known as Kartik Poornima, Guru Nanak Jayanti is observed.
  • Guru Nanak’s disciples will commemorate Guru Nanak’s birthday on November 19, 2021.
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first of the ten Sikh gurus, was born on this day 552 years ago.
  • Guru Nanak is a Sikh guru who was born (1469-1538 AD)
  • Guru Nanak Dev’s bio:
  • Guru Nanak Dev (1469-1539) was born in a village near Lahore called Talwandi Rai Bhoe (it was renamed later as Nankana Sahib).
  • In the 16th century, he pioneered interfaith communication and met with most of the religious denominations of the day.
  • The Adi Granth, produced by the fifth Sikh Guru Arjan Dev, includes his literary writings (1563-1606).
  • After the additions made by the 10th guru Guru Gobind Singh, it is known as Guru Granth Sahib (1666-1708).
  • Teachings of Guru Nanak:
  • Peace and Harmony for All.
  • Guru Nanak was a staunch advocate for equality.
  • He aspired to establish a casteless society with no hierarchy.
  • He was unconcerned by differences and numerous identities based on caste, creed, religion, and language.
  • “Preposterous is caste, silly the distinction of birth,” he had declared. All beings find refuge in the Lord.”
  • “How can they be lesser when they give birth to men?” the Guru Nanak asks of women. Women and men both benefit from God’s grace and are equally accountable to Him for their conduct.”
  • The concept of living together and working in harmony is a recurring theme in Guru Nanak’s songs.
  • He established three Sikhism pillars: Naam Japna, Kirat Karni, and Vand Chakna.
  • He purposefully went on long excursions (called uddasian) to far areas with his two friends, Bhai Bala, a Hindu, and Bhai Mardana, a Muslim, to hold discussions with many saints and Sufis, as well as those charlatans who claimed spiritual powers and had a social following.
  • The importance and significance of his teachings are as follows:
  • Guru Nanak Dev ji, saint-composer and one of the great spiritual teachers, has more importance today than ever before in terms of his ideas, thoughts, and teachings. They have the ability to promote global peace, equality, and prosperity.
  • Source –
  1. Puri Heritage Corridor:


Topic – Indian culture will cover the most important parts of Art Forms, Literature, and Architecture.

  • Context:
  • In Odisha, the Puri heritage corridor is being built at a cost of Rs 800 crore.
  • What exactly is the Puri heritage corridor initiative:
  • The Puri Heritage Project, which began in 2016, intends to turn the holy city of Puri into a worldwide tourist destination.
  • In total, 22 separate projects will be implemented in stages.
  • The state government’s Augmentation of Basic Amenities and Development of Heritage and Architecture in Puri (ABADHA) scheme has provided funding.
  • Puri Lake will be redeveloped, and the Musa River will be revitalised as part of the project.
  • About the Puri Temple:
  • Puri Jagannath Shrine is a Hindu temple in Puri, India.
  • It is an important Vaishnavite temple in Puri, Odisha, dedicated to Jagannath, a manifestation of Sri Krishna.
  • King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty is thought to have built the temple in the 12th century.
  • The ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ of Jagannath Puri temple is where, according to Hindu beliefs, the power of ‘Yama,’ the god of death, has been negated in Puri due to Lord Jagannath’s presence.
  • This shrine is part of the Char Dham pilgrimages and is known as the “White Pagoda” (Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram).
  • The Ratha Yatra, or chariot festival, is held every year at the Puri temple, during which the three main deities are hauled by gigantic, ornately painted temple cars.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Puri Jagannath Shrine is a Hindu temple in Puri, India.
  • Nagara is a type of architecture.
  • Puri Rath Yatra is a pilgrimage to Puri, India.
  • Puri’s heritage route.
  • Source –
  1. How a law is repealed:


Topic – Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, business behaviour, powers and privileges, and challenges deriving from these.

  • Context:
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the removal of three contentious farm regulations in his November 19 address to the nation.
  • He promised agricultural organisations contesting the laws that the legislative process to remove them would be finished in the Parliament’s next Winter Session.
  • What were the agricultural laws that were repealed:
  • They are as follows:
  • Farmers Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020, which aims to allow agricultural produce trade outside of the existing APMC (Agricultural Produce Market Committee) mandis; Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020, which aims to provide a framework for contract farming; The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020, which aims to remove commodities such as cereals, pulses, and sugar from the list of essential commodities;
  • What does it signify when a law is overturned:
  • One method of nullifying a law is to repeal it. When Parliament determines that the statute is no longer necessary, it is overturned.
  • Legislation can also include a “sunset” clause, which specifies a date after which it will no longer be valid.
  • How does the government get rid of a law:
  • The government has two options for repealing the laws: it can introduce a bill to repeal the three laws, or it can issue an ordinance that must be replaced with a bill within six months.
  • Parliament has the same ability to repeal as it does to create a law under the Constitution.
  • The Repealing and Amending Act, which gives Parliament the right to establish laws, also gives the legislative body the power to repeal them.
  • The Act was first passed in 1950, and it repealed 72 statutes.
  • A law can be repealed in its entirety, in part, or only to the extent that it is in conflict with other laws.
  • What steps are involved in repealing a law:
  • Laws can be abolished in one of two ways: through ordinances or legislation.
  • If an ordinance is utilised, it must be replaced within six months by a legislation passed by Parliament.
  • The repealed law can be reinstated if the ordinance fails due to Parliament’s failure to adopt it.
  • The government can also introduce legislation to overturn farm laws.
  • Before it takes effect, it must be passed by both Houses of Parliament and gain the President’s approval.
  • A single piece of legislation may eliminate all three agriculture laws.
  • Typically, Repealing and Amendment Bills are introduced for this purpose.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • What exactly are APMCs? How are they governed?
  • A brief description of the Model Contract Farming Act.
  • The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020, allows for price range volatility.
  • Under the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020, the stock limit restriction will not apply to?
  • Other important aspects of the bills.
  • Source –
  1. About the PESA Act:


Topic – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors

  • Context:
  • As part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, a one-day national conference on the provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA) was held to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the PESA Act.
  • About the PESA Act:
  • The PESA Act of 1996 is a federal law that was enacted in 1996.
  • The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA Act) is a law created by the Indian government to ensure self-governance for people residing in India’s Scheduled Areas through traditional Gram Sabhas.
  • Parliament passed it in 1996, and it went into effect on December 24, 1996.
  • In India, the PESA is regarded as the cornerstone of tribal legislation.
  • PESA acknowledges the existing decision-making structure and advocates for people’s self-governance.
  • Background:
  • The 73rd constitutional amendment was passed in 1992 to enhance local self-governance in rural India. A three-tier Panchayati Raj Institution was made into legislation as a result of this modification.
  • However, under Article 243(M), its application to scheduled and tribal territories was limited.
  • The Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996 was enacted in response to the Bhuria Committee’s recommendations in 1995, with the goal of providing tribal self-rule for people residing in India’s scheduled areas.
  • The Gram Sabha has absolute powers under the PESA, although the state legislature has given it an advising role to ensure that Panchayats and Gram Sabhas work properly.
  • Gram Sabha’s authority cannot be revoked by a higher authority, and it will maintain its independence throughout.
  • Gram Sabhas have the following powers and functions:
  • Land purchase, resettlement, and rehabilitation of displaced persons are all subject to required consultation.
  • Traditional beliefs and indigenous communities’ cultures must be safeguarded.
  • Minor forest product ownership
  • Local problems are resolved.
  • Land encroachment is avoided.
  • Village market management
  • Right to regulate liquor production, distillation, and prohibition
  • Controlling money lending is a difficult task.
  • Any additional Scheduled Tribes-related rights.
  • PESA-Related Issues:
  • State governments are required to establish state laws in accordance with this national statute for their Scheduled Areas. As a result, the PESA was only partially implemented.
  • In Adivasi areas, like as Jharkhand, the partial implementation has harmed self-governance.
  • PESA failed to deliver, according to many experts, due to a lack of clarity, legal flaws, bureaucratic indifference, a lack of political will, opposition to change in the power structure, and so on.
  • According to social audits undertaken across the state, several developmental initiatives were approved on paper by Gram Sabha without any debate or decision-making taking place.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About PESA.
  • Its Characteristics.
  • Social Audits
  • Source –
  1. About the Operation Sankalp:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • As part of Operation Sankalp, the INS Trikand is currently stationed in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
  • After explosions on board two oil tanker tankers in the Gulf of Oman amid rising tensions between Iran and the United States, Operation Sankalp was launched in June 2019.
  • The Indian Navy is working hard to keep a frontline ship in the region to ensure safe and secure trade, boost maritime community confidence, and contribute to regional maritime security.
  • Source –