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22nd November 2021

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About Green Hydrogen Prelims & Mains
2.    What is UV-C Technology Prelims & Mains
3.    How the Political Parties are registered Prelims & Mains
4.    About the Lateral Entry Prelims & Mains
5.    About the Fly Ash Prelims & Mains
6.    About the Istanbul Convention on Violence against Women Prelims & Mains
7.    About the National Productivity Council Prelims Specific


  1. About Green Hydrogen:


Topic – Conservation related issues.

  • Context:
  • The Indian Oil Corporation (IOCL) has floated a global tender to set up green hydrogen generation units at two of its major refineries in North India, as part of the Narendra Modi government’s National Hydrogen Mission.
  • The Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) is the country’s largest commercial undertaking, with the most refineries.
  • What is green hydrogen, and how does it work:
  • Green Hydrogen is hydrogen that is created by electrolysis with renewable energy and has no carbon footprint.
  • Today’s hydrogen is derived from fossil fuels, which are the most common source.
  • Chemical techniques are utilised to release hydrogen from organic sources such as fossil fuels and biomass.
  • Green Hydrogen’s Importance:
  • Green hydrogen energy is critical for India to reach its INDC targets and assure regional and national energy security, access, and availability.
  • Green hydrogen can be used as an energy storage alternative, which will be necessary in the future to address renewable energy intermittencies.
  • In terms of mobility, Green Hydrogen can be utilised in railways, huge ships, buses, and trucks, among other things, for long-distance mobilizations for either urban freight movement within cities and states or for people.
  • Green hydrogen’s uses include:
  • Ammonia and methanol are examples of green chemicals that can be used directly in existing applications such as fertilisers, mobility, power, chemicals, and shipping.
  • To acquire universal adoption, green hydrogen mixing of up to 10% may be used in CGD networks.
  • Benefits:
  • It’s a low-carbon compound that can help decarbonize industries including iron and steel, chemicals, and transportation.
  • Renewable energy that can’t be stored or used by the grid can be funnelled into hydrogen production.
  • What actions has the Indian government done to promote green hydrogen production:
  • Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced the commencement of the Hydrogen Energy Mission to manufacture hydrogen from renewable sources during her budget speech in February 2021.
  • In the same month, the state-owned Indian Oil Corporation struck a deal with Greenstat Norway to establish a Hydrogen Centre of Excellence (CoE-H). It will support R&D projects between Norwegian and Indian R&D institutions/universities for the generation of green and blue hydrogen.
  • India and the United States recently formed a task group under the Strategic Clean Energy Partnership (SCEP) to mobilise funds and accelerate green energy development.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Green Hydrogen is a renewable energy source.
  • What method is used to create it?
  • The Hydrogen Energy Mission is all about hydrogen energy.
  • Source – https://energy.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/renewable/green-hydrogen-production-cost-three-times-more-than-grey-hydrogen-shuboday-ganta-and-somesh-kumar-ey-india/87839491
  1. What is UV-C Technology:


Topic – Scientific Inventions relating to Bio-Conservation, Environmental Conservation.

  • Context:
  • One of the most effective methods for disinfecting water is UV-C water purification. Special “germicidal” UV-C lamps that emit high-intensity ultraviolet light purify the water without the use of harsh chemicals that are damaging to the environment are used in this procedure.
  • What is UV radiation and how does it work:
  • The region of the electromagnetic spectrum between X-rays and visible light is known as UV radiation

Sunlight is the most prevalent source of UV radiation, which emits three types of UV rays:

  • Some important facts:
  • UVA photons have the longest wavelengths, whereas UVB and UVC rays have the shortest.
  • While UVA and UVB rays pass through the atmosphere, the Earth’s ozone layer absorbs all UVC and some UVB rays. As a result, the majority of UV rays you encounter are UVA, with a tiny proportion of UVB.
  • What is the purpose of it:
  • UV rays are commonly employed to kill bacteria and other microbes.
  • UV-C, commonly known as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), is a disinfection treatment that kills or inactivates bacteria by destroying their nucleic acids and altering their DNA, rendering them unable to perform important biological tasks and stopping their replication.
  • UVGI is used in a range of disinfection applications, including food, air, and water.
  • Is it suitable for human consumption:
  • The device was created exclusively to sterilise non-living objects, according to the researchers. As a result, the UV-C radiation employed in this device could be damaging to living beings’ skin and eyes.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • A diagram illustrating the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • In regards to UV rays.
  • Types & Features.
  • Source – https://www.news-medical.net/news/20211117/Efficacy-of-UVC-light-prototype-devices-for-inactivating-SARS-CoV-2.aspx
  1. How the Political Parties are registered:


Topic – Election related issues.

  • Context:
  • Captain Amarinder Singh has filed an application with the Election Commission to register his new political party, the Punjab Lok Congress Party, under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • So, what’s next:
  • Any party seeking registration with the Election Commission must file an application within 30 days of its inception, according to the Election Commission.
  • This is in accordance with the Commission’s instructions issued in the exercise of the powers granted on it by Article 324 of the Constitution and Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • Political parties must be registered:
  • The provisions of Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 govern the registration of political parties.
  • A party seeking registration with the Election Commission under the provisions of Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, must submit an application to the Commission within the time period specified after its formation, following the guidelines prescribed by the Election Commission of India in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 324 of the Commission of India and Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • Guidelines:
  • The applicant is required to publish the proposed name of the party in two national newspapers and two local dailies, according to the existing criteria.
  • It shall also allow two days for any objections to the proposed registration of the party to be filed with the Commission within 30 days of its publication.
  • The notice of publication is also available on the Election Commission’s website.
  • To be eligible for a ‘National Political Party of India’ membership, a political party must meet the following criteria:
  • At a general election for the House of the People or the State Legislative Assembly, it receives at least 6% of the valid votes cast in any four or more states.
  • Furthermore, it must gain at least four seats in the House of People from any State or States.
  • It gets at least 2% of the seats in the House of People (11 seats out of a total of 543 seats), and these members are elected from at least three distinct states.
  • To be considered for a ‘State Political Party,’ a political party must meet the following criteria:
  • It obtains at least 6% of the legitimate votes cast in a general election in the State, either for the House of the People or the State’s Legislative Assembly.
  • Furthermore, it was elected to at least two seats in the State’s Legislative Assembly.
  • It must win at least 3% (3%) of the total number of members in the State’s Legislative Assembly, or three seats in the Assembly, whichever is greater.
  • Benefits:
  • If a party is recognised as a ‘State Party,’ it is entitled to exclusive allotment of its reserved symbol to candidates it creates in the State in which it is recognised, and if a party is recognised as a ‘National Party,’ it is entitled to exclusive allotment of its reserved symbol to candidates it creates across India.
  • Recognized ‘State’ and ‘National’ parties require only one proposer to file a nomination and are entitled to two sets of electoral rolls free of charge at the time of roll revision, as well as one copy of the electoral roll free of charge during General Elections.
  • During general elections, they also have access to broadcast/telecast services via Akashvani/Doordarshan.
  • Star campaigners’ travel expenses are not to be included in the election expense records of their party’s candidates.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Political parties must be registered.
  • Political Parties That Are Recognized vs. Parties That Aren’t Recognized
  • Parties from the state vs. national level.
  • Political parties with a track record of success are eligible for benefits.
  • What makes someone a star campaigner?
  • The Indian Constitution, Article 324.
  • RPA 1951, Section 29A.
  • Source – https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/election-commission-application-registration-punjab-lok-congress-1877118-2021-11-16
  1. About the Lateral Entry:


Topic – Role of Civil Services in India

  • Context:
  • The Union Public Service Commission’s (UPSC) recent proposal of 31 applicants for induction into senior and mid-level positions in various union ministries is the second such initiative to integrate expertise from the private sector into the senior and intermediate levels of bureaucracy. In 2019, nine lateral entrants from the private sector were also inducted.
  • What is the problem that specialists have identified:
  • Experts have expressed concern about the recruitment process.
  • According to them, meritocracy requires that professional recruitment procedures pass the merit test in a fair and transparent manner.
  • The foundation of modern merit-based bureaucracy is the fair selection and appointment of government officials.
  • As a result, any modification from the established approach must also meet the requirements of a fair recruitment procedure.
  • The necessity of the hour:
  • The recruitment procedure for induction of lateral candidates should be launched in the parliament to be constitutionally correct and to strengthen the legitimacy of the motion.
  • A complete legal approach would not only assist bring clarity to different facets of lateral entry recruiting, but it will also legitimise the practise and give it greater political support.
  • What does it mean to have a “lateral entry” into government:
  • In its three-year Action Agenda, NITI Aayog recommends it.
  • Personnel will be inducted into the federal government at the middle and high management levels.
  • These ‘lateral entrants’ will work in the central secretariat, which normally only employs career bureaucrats from the All India Services and Central Civil Services.
  • Importance and necessity:
  • Lateral entrants possess specialised subject knowledge and experience.
  • Meets the twin objectives of bringing in new talent and increasing personnel availability.
  • It allows stakeholders in the governance process, such as the commercial sector and non-profits, to engage.
  • It will aid in the transformation of organisational culture in the government sector.
  • Why is it that lateral entry is sometimes chastised:
  • These appointments are without reserve.
  • They are viewed as back doors via which a political party might publicly bring its own constituents.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Articles 309 through 312 in Summary
  1. About the Fly Ash:


Topic – Conservation related issues

  • Context:
  • Fly ash from the North Chennai Thermal Power Station has been found in the Kosasthalaiyar, according to activists and fishermen (NCTPS). A leak in the pipeline bringing ash to the ash pond caused this.
  • What exactly is Fly Ash:
  • It is a coal combustion product known as flue ash or pulverised fuel ash.
  • Composition:
  • Composed of the particles and flue gases that are expelled from coal-fired boilers.
  • The components of fly ash vary depending on the source and content of the coal being burned, but all fly ash contains significant levels of silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), and calcium oxide (CaO), the major mineral constituents in coal-bearing rock strata.
  • Arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium, as well as dioxins and PAH compounds, are minor ingredients. It also contains carbon that hasn’t been burned.
  • Hazards to human health and the environment:
  • Harmful heavy metals are present: Nickel, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, lead, and other heavy metals found in fly ash are all toxic in nature. They are tiny, toxic particles that build up in the respiratory tract and cause poisoning over time.
  • Fly ash carries a hundred times more radiation than nuclear waste stored in a dry cask or in water for the same quantity of electricity generated.
  • Water pollution: In India, ash dykes are routinely breached, resulting in ash leaks that pollute a huge number of water bodies.
  • The destruction of mangroves, significant reductions in crop yields, and pollution of groundwater in the Rann of Kutch due to ash sludge from nearby coal power stations have all been extensively documented.
  • Fly ash, on the other hand, can be used in the following ways:
  • Sand is used in concrete manufacturing as a substitute for Portland cement.
  • Fly-ash pellets can be used in place of regular aggregate in concrete mixes.
  • Fills in the form of embankments and other structural elements.
  • Production of cement clinker – (as a substitute material for clay).
  • Soft soil stabilisation.
  • Construction of the road’s subbase.
  • As a substitute for aggregate (e.g. for brick production).
  • Soil amendment, fertiliser, cow feeders, soil stabilisation in stock feed yards, and agricultural stakes are all examples of agricultural usage.
  • For ice control, use a loose application on roadways and parking lots.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • What exactly is fly ash?
  • Applications that could be used
  • Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/fly-ash-leak-ruining-kosasthalaiyar-say-fishermen/article37551255.ece
  1. About the Istanbul Convention on Violence against Women:


Topic – Women Empowerment & International Organizations:

  • Context:
  • Hundreds of women are murdered every year in Turkey, and popular hashtags on social media and street rallies have become all too common.
  • This month, a particularly heinous murder has sparked widespread outrage over the government’s alleged failure to prevent gender-based violence, according to women’s rights groups.
  • Activists claim that by withdrawing from the Istanbul Convention, a historic Council of Europe agreement from 2011 defining how to secure women’s safety, Turkey has abandoned a path that it

was the first country to sign.

  • Background:
  • Turkey became the first country to ratify the Istanbul Convention on November 24, 2011 and to adopt it into local legislation on March 8, 2012.
  • Why is it that withdrawal is being chastised:
  • Turkey has faced harsh criticism from a variety of sectors, resulting in nationwide rallies.
  • Despite the country’s unacceptably high rates of violence and femicide, the country has withdrawn from the pact.
  • In the Global Gender Gap Report 2021, the country is ranked 133rd out of 156 countries.
  • According to UN Women data, 38% of Turkish women experience abuse from a partner at some point in their lives.
  • There are no official records of femicides kept by the Turkish government.

What are the causes for Turkey’s decision to leave:

  • According to the report, the conference denigrates traditional family structures, encourages divorce, and promotes acceptance of LGBTQ people in society.
  • It also claimed that it has sufficient local laws to defend women’s rights.
  • Concerns:
  • Domestic violence against women and girls has become more prevalent over the world as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • People are also concerned that Turkish women’s basic rights and safeguards may now be jeopardised.
  • What is the Istanbul Convention, and why is it important:
  • The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence is another name for it.
  • The treaty is the first legally enforceable agreement aimed at preventing and combating violence against women in the globe.
  • Domestic abuse, rape, sexual assault, female genital mutilation (FGM), so-called honour-based violence, and forced marriage are all covered by this extensive legal framework.
  • When a government ratifies the Convention, it commits to upholding it.
  • On April 7, 2011, the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers approved the treaty.
  • When it comes to combating violence against women, the Convention establishes basic standards that states must adhere to.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • When did it get signed?
  • Which country is the first to sign the convention?
  • Which country just opted to leave the convention?
  • What exactly is the Council of Europe?
  • Source – https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/11/18/turkey-femicide-istanbul-convention-womens-rights
  1. About the National Productivity Council:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • The National Productivity Council (NPC) is an autonomous, multipartite, non-profit organisation that was founded in 1958 by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry of the Government of India.
  • NPC is a member of the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO), a Tokyo-based intergovernmental body in which the Indian government is a founding member.





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