23rd November 2021

. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About the Mullaperiyar Dam Issue Prelims & Mains
2.    What is Dengue Fever Prelims & Mains
3.    Anticipatory Bail Prelims & Mains
4.    About the Personal Data Protection Bill Prelims & Mains
5.    Different Sessions of Parliament Prelims & Mains
6.    About the Rohingya Muslims Prelims Specific
7.    Different Gallantry Awards of India Prelims Specific


  1. About the Mullaperiyar Dam Issue:


Topic – Water Conservation related issues

  • Why in the News:
  • Supreme Court has decided to hear the case of the Mullaperiyar Dam Dispute Case once again on 10 December, 2021.
  • In the midst of severe rains in Kerala, the Supreme Court had recently ordered the Supervisory Committee to make an urgent and clear judgment on the maximal water capacity that can be sustained at Mullaperiyar dam.
  • To resolve the issue of the Mullaperiyar dam involving Kerala and Tamil Nadu, the Ministry of Jal Shakti has formed a three-member Supervisory Committee.
  • At the Heart of a Decade-Old Debate:
  • The project poses a threat to lakhs of people living downstream in Kerala, while the water it provides is a lifeline for residents in five districts in Tamil Nadu, which manages the dam.
  • Reasons for the Dispute’s Recent Revival:
  • Heavy rains have recently increased the flow of water in the Mullaperiyar dam. Surplus water from Mullaperiyar may spill into the Idukki reservoir downstream, causing flooding.
  • As an emergency precaution against floods or other disasters, the SC agreed in 2018 to keep the water threshold in the Mullaperiyar reservoir two or three feet below the legal limit of 142 feet.
  • Mullaperiyar Dam is a dam in Kerala’s Idukki district, built at the intersection of the Mullayar and Periyar rivers.
  • The reservoir is located inside the Periyar Tiger Reserve.
  • Tamil Nadu operates and maintains it to meet the potable water and irrigation needs of five of the state’s southern districts.
  • The functional rights were given to Tamil Nadu through a 999-year lease arrangement signed during British control.
  • The water diverted from the reservoir is used to generate electricity in Tamil Nadu’s lower Periyar region before flowing into the Suruliyar, a tributary of the Vaigai river, and then irrigating roughly 2.08 lakh hectares in Theni and four additional districts far afield.
  • About the Periyar River:
  • The Periyar River is located in Kerala, India.
  • With a length of 244 kilometres, the Periyar River is Kerala’s longest river.
  • It is also known as Kerala’s ‘Lifeline,’ as it is one of the state’s few perennial rivers.
  • The Periyar River flows through the Periyar National Park and originates in the Sivagiri highlands of Tamil Nadu’s Western Ghats.
  • Muthirapuzha, Mullayar, Cheruthoni, and Perinjankutti are the Periyar’s primary tributaries.
  • About the Idukki Dam:
  • It is a dam in Kerala.
  • The dam is situated between the Kuravanmala (839 m) and Kurathimala (839 m) mountains (925 m).
  • It is Asia’s third tallest arch dam and one of Asia’s highest arch dams.
  • It is situated on the Periyar River in Kerala, in a ravine between the Kuravan and Kurathi Hills.
  • The Kerala State Electricity Board built it and now owns it. It is home to a hydroelectric power plant with a capacity of 780 MW.
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  1. What is Dengue Fever:


Topic – Health related issues

  • About the Dengue Fever:
  • Dengue fever is a vector – borne subtropical illness caused by the dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus). It is spread by various mosquito species belonging to the genus Aedes, the most common of which being Aedes aegypti.
  • Chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika are all transmitted by this insect.
  • The virus that causes dengue has four unique but closely related serotypes (distinct groupings within a genus of microorganisms that all have a common trait) (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4).
  • Symptoms include a high fever that comes on suddenly, severe headaches, discomfort behind the eyes, and severe bone, joint, and muscular pain, among others.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment: A blood test is used to diagnose dengue infection.
  • There is no specific treatment for dengue fever.
  • Cases of Dengue Fever around the world:
  • Dengue fever has become far more common in recent decades around the world, with the vast majority of cases being unreported, as per the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • The World Health Organization estimates that 39 million people contract dengue fever each year, with 9.6 million showing symptoms.
  • According to the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme, India had over 1 lakh dengue cases in 2018 and over 1.5 lakh cases in 2019. (NVBDCP).
  • In India, the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) is the central nodal agency for the prevention and control of six vector-borne diseases: Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis, and Chikungunya. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare oversees it.
  • Using Bacteria to Treat Dengue Fever:
  • Scientists from the World Mosquito Program recently used Wolbachia bacteria-infected mosquitos to successfully control dengue fever in Indonesia.
  • Method: The researchers infected some mosquitos with Wolbachia bacteria and then released them in the city, where they reproduced with local mosquitos until nearly all mosquitos in the area carried the infection. The Population Replacement Strategy is what it’s called.
  • The researchers discovered that, after 27 months, the prevalence of dengue fever was 77 percent lower in locations where Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes had been released, compared to places where such deployments had not been made.
  • Dengue Vaccine:
  • In 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration authorised the CYD-TDV or Dengvaxia dengue vaccine, making it the first dengue vaccine to receive regulatory approval in the US.
  • Dengvaxia is a live, attenuated dengue virus that must be given to children aged 9 to 16 who have had a previous dengue infection confirmed by a test and who reside in endemic areas.
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  1. Anticipatory Bail:


Topic – Indian Constitution and Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC & IPC)

  • What is Anticipatory Bail, and how does it work:
  • When the CrPC was revised in 1973, Section 438 was included, allowing for anticipatory bail.
  • Section 438 is a procedural rule that protects each individual’s right to personal liberty by granting them the benefit of the presumption of innocence.
  • In contrast to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who has been arrested, anticipatory bail requires a person to be released on bond before an arrest has been made.
  • Who is eligible to apply:
  • Under Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1973:
  • “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail,” reads sub-section (1) of the provision.
  • Only the Sessions Court and the High Court have the authority to award anticipatory bail under this law.
  • Significance:
  • The rationale for Section 438’s inclusion in the Code was parliamentary recognition of the importance of personal liberty in a free and democratic society.
  • Parliament wanted to promote personal liberty and give precedence to a fundamental element of criminal law, which states that everyone is presumed innocent until proven guilty.
  • Every individual’s most prized possessions are life and liberty. Every human being has an innate need for freedom.
  • A five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud declared in the 1980 case Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia versus State of Punjab that S. 438 (1) should be interpreted in light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).
  • Need:
  • Arbitrary arrests continue to be a problem in the country, so the courts’ discretionary power to grant anticipatory bail should not be limited, and protection should be provided until the end of the trial.
  • Aside from that, there’s the threat of arbitrary and harsh arrests, which are used much too frequently to harass and humiliate civilians.
  • Views of Judiciary on the Anticipatory Bail:
  • A Supreme Court constitutional panel has declared that anticipatory bail cannot be limited to a set amount of time and can last till the end of the trial.
  • The decision came in the matter of Sushila Aggarwal v. State of NCT of Delhi, in which a three-judge bench was asked to rule on the scope of Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), which allows for anticipatory bail.
  • The Court made the following observations:
  • If there are any unique circumstances that require the court to limit the duration of anticipatory bail, the court has the authority to do so. Nothing in the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) mandates or obligates courts to impose time limits on remedies.
  • When Parliament has decided that it is not appropriate to limit people’ rights, the SC should not limit the authority granted to courts in the area of anticipatory bail.
  • A person can file an anticipatory bail plea even before the FIR is filed.
  • While granting anticipatory bail, the court should consider the nature and gravity of the offence before imposing any conditions on the petitioner.
  • Source –
  1. About the Personal Data Protection Bill:


Topic – Privacy of Citizens as a Fundamental Right

  • Why in the News:
  • The Data Protection Bill has been adopted by the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC), while also retaining the exemption clause.
  • Background:
  • The report provided by a Group of Specialists led by Justice B.N. Srikrishna is the source of this Bill.
  • During the proceedings before the Supreme Court in the right to privacy case, the government formed the committee (Justice K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India).
  • What is the bill’s approach to data regulation:
  • The bill specifies three different forms of personal data:
  • Critical, Sensitive & General Data
  • Other important provisions include:
  • According to the bill, the individual whose information is being held and processed is the data principal.
  • Social media firms who are considered key data fiduciaries due to characteristics including data volume and sensitivity, as well as turnover, should build their own user verification process.
  • Assessments, audits, and definition creation will be overseen by an independent authority, the Data Protection Agency (DPA).
  • Each organisation will have a Data Protection Officer (DPO), who will work closely with the DPA on audits, grievance resolution, and record-keeping, among other things.
  • Individuals will also have the right to data portability, or the capacity to access and transfer their own data, under the measure.
  • The right to be forgotten: An individual’s right to withdraw consent for data gathering and disclosure.
  • Exemptions:
  • The controversial section 35 of the Personal Data Protection (PDP) Bill 2019 invokes the “sovereignty and integrity of India,” “public order,” “friendly relations with foreign states,” and “security of the state” to give the Central government the power to suspend all or any of the Act’s provisions for government agencies.
  • Why is there apprehension about the bill:
  • The bill is a double-edged sword. While it protects Indians’ personal data by giving them data primary rights, it also grants the central government exemptions that are contrary to the principles of processing personal data.
  • When necessary, the government can process even sensitive personal data without the data principals’ explicit agreement.
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  1. Different Sessions of Parliament:


Topic – Parliamentary Proceedings:

  • Why in the News:
  • The Winter Session of the Indian Parliament is stated to commence from 29th November, 2021.
  • This session holds prime importance because the Prime Minister of India had recently announced that the three farm laws will be repealed in the winter session of the Parliament
  • About the Parliamentary Sessions:
  • Article 85 of the Constitution specifies how Parliament is summoned.
  • The Government has the authority to call a session of Parliament. The Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs makes the decision, which is formalised by the President, in whose name MPs are summoned to a meeting.
  • The legislative schedule in India is not set in stone. Parliament meets three times per year by convention (rather than by the Constitution).
  • The longest, the Budget Session (1st session), begins in late January and ends in late April or the first week of May. The session has been adjourned to allow Parliamentary Committees to discuss the budget suggestions.
  • The three-week Monsoon Session, which normally begins in July and ends in August, is the second session.
  • From November to December, the Winter Session (3rd session) is held.
  • Summoning of Parliament: The practise of summoning all members of Parliament to a meeting is known as summoning. From time to time, the President calls each House of Parliament.
  • The duration between two Parliamentary sessions cannot exceed six months, implying that the Parliament meets at least twice a year.
  • Adjournment: When the House adjourns, the session ends and the House reconvenes at the time set for the next session.
  • The delay can be for a specific amount of time, such as hours, days, or weeks.
  • Adjournment sine die occurs when a meeting is called to a close without a set time or date for the next meeting.
  • Prorogation:
  • The termination of a session is called prorogation.
  • A prorogation marks the end of a meeting. Recess is the period of time between Prorogation and Reassembly.
  • The end of the session, not the dissolution of the house, is known as prorogation (in case of Lok Sabha, as Rajya Sabha does not dissolve).
  • Quorum: The minimal number of members required to conduct a meeting of the house is referred to as the quorum.
  • For both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, the Constitution established a quorum of one-tenth of the total membership.
  • Thus, at least 55 members must be present to hold a Lok Sabha session, while at least 25 members must be present to conduct a Rajya Sabha sitting.
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  1. About the Rohingya Muslims:

Prelims Specific Content

  • Context:
  • Bangladesh plans to move over 80,000 Rohingya refugees to Bhasan Char, an isolated island in the Bay of Bengal, after reaching an agreement with the UN to assist them.
  • Despite concerns highlighted by relief organisations, some 19,000 Muslim refugees from Myanmar have been migrated from overcrowded camps on the mainland to Bhashan Char island.
  • Background:
  • Bhasan Char is an island that was built primarily to house 1,000 of the 1 million Rohingya refugees from Myanmar.
  • Human rights groups have criticised the move, claiming that some people are being forced to travel against their will. However, the government claims that the refugees who have arrived on the island have done so freely.
  • Who are the Rohingya people:
  • They are a Muslim-dominated ethnic group.
  • Myanmar did not offer them full citizenship.
  • “Resident foreigners or associate citizens” was their classification.
  • Ethnically, they are more closely related to India’s and Bangladesh’s Indo-Aryans than to the country’s Sino-Tibetans.
  • UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has described him as “one of, if not the, most discriminated persons on the planet.”
  • Source –
  1. Different Gallantry Awards of India:

Prelims Specific Content

  • About the Gallantry Awards:
  • The Government of India established the Gallantry Awards to honour the bravery and sacrifice of officers/personnel of the Armed Forces, other lawfully created Forces, and citizens.
  • These gallantry awards are given out twice a year, once on Republic Day and then again on Independence Day.
  • Gallantry awards come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
  • There are two categories of gallantry awards:
  • Valour in the Face of the Enemy
  • Other than in the Face of an Enemy Gallantry Awards
  • The first category of gallantry awards includes the following awards:
  • Param Vir Chakra (PVC), Mahavir Chakra (MVC), Vir Chakra
  • The Param Vir Chakra, the Ashoka Chakra, the Mahavir Chakra, the Kirti Chakra, the Vir Chakra, and the Shaurya Chakra are in order of precedence.
  • Second Category of Gallantry Awards includes the awards:
  • Ashok Chakra (Ashok Chakra)
  • Kirti Chakra (Kirti Chakra)
  • Chakra Shaurya
  • The first three gallantry awards, the Param Vir Chakra, Maha Vir Chakra, and Vir Chakra, were instituted by the Government of India on January 26, 1950, and were declared to have taken effect on August 15, 1947.
  • Following that, the Government of India introduced three more gallantry awards, the Ashoka Chakra Class-I, Ashoka Chakra Class-II, and Ashoka Chakra Class-III, on January 4, 1952, with effect from August 15, 1947. In January 1967, these honours were renamed the Ashoka Chakra, Kirti Chakra, and Shaurya Chakra, respectively.
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