DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS
24th November 2021
|1.||National Human Rights Commission||Prelims & Mains|
|2.||Minimum Support Price||Prelims & Mains|
|3.||Caste Wise Census||Prelims & Mains|
|4.||New Crypto Bill||Prelims & Mains|
|5.||About Central Vista Project||Prelims & Mains|
|6.||Chamundi Development Plan||Prelims Specific|
|7.||About Taiwan Strait||Prelims Specific|
|8.||About the National Investigation Agency||Prelims Specific|
|9.||What is the AK 203 Deal with Russia||Prelims Specific|
- National Human Rights Commission:
Topic – Statutory and non-statutory bodies
- The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) is a statutory institution in India that promotes human rights. It was established on October 12, 1993 by the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA) of 1993, which also established the State Human Rights Commission.
- Either a retired Chief Justice of India or a Supreme Court judge serves as chairperson.
- They are appointed by the President based on the suggestions of a six-member group that includes:
- Opposition leaders in both Houses of Parliament Union Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior (head) The Lok Sabha’s Speaker is Rajya Sabha’s Deputy Chairman
- Office Term and Termination:
- They serve for three years or until they reach the age of 70, whichever comes first, and the President has the ability to remove them from office under specific situations.
- Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/law-students-to-assist-prisoners-with-bail-appeals-nhrc/article37649284.ece
- Minimum Support Price:
Topic – Agriculture related topics
- What is MSP, exactly:
- The government purchases grains from farmers at the minimum support price (MSP). MSPs have already been established for 23 crops grown during the Kharif and Rabi seasons.
- What is the method for calculating it:
- The MSP is the price at which the government buys crops from farmers, and it is estimated at least 1.5 times the producers’ cost of production.
- According to the Union Budget for 2018-19, MSP would be retained at 1.5 times the cost of production.
- The MSP is determined twice a year, based on recommendations from the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), a governmental body that issues reports for the kharif and rabi seasons.
- Which manufacturing costs are taken into account while establishing MSP:
- The CACP includes both ‘A2+FL’ and ‘C2’ expenses when recommending MSP.
- All monetary and in-kind expenses incurred by farmers on seeds, fertilisers, chemicals, hired labour, fuel, and irrigation, among other things, are included in A2 expenditures.
- On top of A2+FL, C2 expenditures account for the rent and interest foregone on owned land and fixed capital assets, respectively.
- The MSP’s disadvantages include:
- The main concern with the MSP is a paucity of government procurement machinery for all products except wheat and rice, which are actively procured under the PDS by the Food Corporation of India.
- Farmers in states where the grain is completely procured by the government benefit the most, while those in states where the grain is procured less frequently are frequently affected.
- Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/we-will-give-up-ganja-cultivation-if-msp-is-guaranteed-for-agriculture-produce-say-odisha-villagers/article37639043.ece
- Caste Wise Census:
Topic – Population related issues
- Although the Union government told the Supreme Court that caste-based data from the 2011 Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) was “unusable,” the Registrar-General and Census Commissioner of India informed the Standing Committee on Rural Development in 2016 that 98.87 percent of the data on individual caste and religion was “free from errors.”
- What is the government’s justification for declaring the data “unusable”:
- The government estimated that there had been 4,147 castes in 1931, but SECC data shows that there are now over 46 lakh castes. Even if certain castes divide into sub-castes, the total number of sub-castes cannot be exponentially large. • The entire effort was polluted because the data collectors used separate words for the same castes. Many responders, as per the authorities, refused to disclose their castes.
- How have caste statistics been acquired so far:
- While the census enumerators collect data on SC/STs, they do not collect data on other castes. The most popular method is self-declaration to the enumerator.
- Until date, several states’ backward classes commissions performed their own demographic counts to ascertain the amount of backward castes.
- What type of caste information does the Census release:
- Every census in independent India between 1951 and 2011 provided data on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, but not on other castes. Until 1931, caste information was recorded in every census.
- What is the purpose of SECC 2011:
- The 2011 Socio-Economic Caste Census was a humongous endeavour to collect data on diverse communities’ socio-economic condition.
- It was divided into two sections: a survey of rural and urban households and their classification based on predetermined variables, and a caste census.
- Only the details of people’s economic circumstances in rural and urban areas, however, were made public. The caste statistics has yet to be released.
- What’s the difference between the Census and the SECC:
- Because the Census is controlled by the Census Act of 1948, all data are considered private, whereas the SECC collects personal information that can be used by government departments to grant or deny benefits to households.
- Caste census benefits:
- Knowing the exact population of each caste would help adapt the reservation policy so that everyone is fairly represented.
- Issues relating to:
- It’s probable that some people will get the shivers, leading to requests for higher or distinct quotas.
- It has been suggested that just labelling someone as belonging to a particular caste helps to keep the system in place.
- Source – The Hindu Page 5
- New Cropto Bill:
Topic – Economy related topics
- The Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2021, will be presented in Parliament during the winter session.
- Essential Requirements:
- Its goal is to develop a framework that will make it simpler for the Reserve Bank of India to introduce an official digital currency.
- It aims to regulate bitcoin and, reportedly, restricts the usage of private cryptocurrencies.
- The Bill’s specific contours have not yet been made public, and there have been no public deliberations.
- Here’s how things are right now:
- In India, an inter-ministerial committee on cryptocurrency has recommended banning all private cryptocurrencies except state-issued virtual currencies.
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has also highlighted concerns about the market for cryptocurrencies, which it has communicated to the government.
- In March 2020, the Supreme Court overturned the RBI’s 2018 circular forbidding banks and financial organisations from providing services related to cryptocurrencies (on the basis of “proportionality”).
- Cryptocurrencies: What Are They and How Do They Work?
- Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that function without the help of a central bank and rely on encryption to control the generation of money units and verify the transfer of payments.
- Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and others are examples.
- What is the government’s motivation for banning cryptocurrencies:
- Consumer protection: Consumers are at risk from cryptocurrencies. They are not legal tender because they are not backed by the government.
- Market volatility: They are incredibly volatile due to their speculative character. For example, Bitcoin’s value has decreased from USD 20,000 in December 2017 to USD 3,800 in November 2018.
- Security risk: If a user’s private key is lost, he or she loses access to their cryptocurrency (unlike traditional digital banking accounts, this password cannot be reset).
- Malware threats: Technical service providers (cryptocurrency exchanges or wallets) may store private keys that are vulnerable to malware or hacking in some cases.
- Money laundering.
- Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/new-cryptocurrency-bill-seeks-to-ban-private-players/article37649790.ece
- About the Central Vista Project:
Topic – Indian Parliament related issues
- A number of former bureaucrats have recently spoken out against the Central Vista redevelopment project.
- The Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs submitted a Central Vista refurbishment proposal in 2019.
- Project information:
- A triangular structure will be built next to the current Parliament building
- A Central Secretariat for the Common Good will be established.
- Between Rashtrapati Bhavan and India Gate, the 3-kilometer-long Rajpath is being remodelled.
- Museums will be built in the North and South Blocks.
- The following is the government’s position on redeveloping Central Vista:
- The Parliament building’s amenities and infrastructure are insufficient to meet current demand.
- The Central Government’s offices are distributed throughout the country, producing inter-departmental coordination challenges and unnecessary travel, which adds to traffic and pollution.
- The vast majority of existing structures have outlived their usefulness.
- New Delhi’s Central Vista is home to the Rashtrapati Bhawan, Parliament House, North and South Blocks, India Gate, and the National Archives.
- In December 1911, King George V stated that India’s capital will be moved from Calcutta to Delhi at the Delhi Durbar (grand assembly).
- The Delhi Durbar was organised to honour the coronation of King George V.
- A new metropolis was to be designed by Edwin Lutyens, a British architect known for his strong commitment to European Classicism, and Herbert Baker, a notable South African architect.
- Herbert Baker also designed the Union buildings in Pretoria, South Africa.
- The design of Parliament House was a collaboration between Lutyens and Baker.
- Rashtrapati Bhavan was designed by Edwin Lutyens.
- The Secretariat, which includes both the north and south blocks, was designed by Herbert Baker.
- Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/central-vista-supreme-court-dismisses-petition-challenging-change-in-land-use-of-plot/article37638919.ece
- About the Taiwan Strait:
Prelims Specific Topic
- Taiwan Strait (Taiwan Strait):
- The Taiwan Waterway, commonly known as the Formosa Waterway, is a 180-kilometer strait connecting Taiwan and mainland China.
- The strait is currently a portion of the South China Sea, and it connects to the East China Sea to the north.
- Asia’s continental shelf surrounds the whole strait, with the narrowest point measuring 130 kilometres.
- The People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan have long supported the One-China Policy, which considers the Taiwan Strait to be part of a single “China’s” exclusive economic zone.
- Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/us-warship-transits-taiwan-strait-after-biden-xi-summit/article37652741.ece
- About the National Investigation Agency:
Prelims Specific Topic
- About the NIA:
- The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a federal investigative agency based in India.
- It is a National Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency with the authority to pursue terror-related offences across state lines without the need for special state authorization.
- The National Investigation Agency Act, which was passed in 2008, established the agency. The regulating body is the Ministry of Hime Affairs.
- If a case has been filed for one of the offences mentioned in the NIA Act’s schedule, the State Government may request that the NIA handle the investigation.
- The National Investigation Agency (NIA) can also be instructed by the Central Government to take over the investigation of any scheduled offence anywhere in India.
- Officers from the Indian Police Service and the Indian Revenue Service make up the NIA.
- NIA Special Courts:
- Under Sections 11 and 22 of the NIA Act 2008, the Central Government of India has notified a number of Special Courts for the trial of charges lodged at various NIA police stations.
- Any question of these courts’ jurisdiction is decided by the Central Government.
- The Central Government appoints a judge to preside over them on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of the High Court with jurisdiction in that region.
- In light of the realities in that state, the Supreme Court of India has also been given the jurisdiction to transfer cases from one special court to another special court inside or beyond the state if it is in the best interests of justice.
- Under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the NIA Special Courts have all the powers of a court of sessions for the trial of any offence.
- On both facts and law, a Special Court judgement, sentence, or order that is not an interlocutory order may be appealed to the High Court.
- State legislatures have also been given the power to appoint one or more special courts in their jurisdictions.
- Source – http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/global-rights-bodies-call-for-the-release-of-kashmir-based-activist-khurram-parvez/article37640132.ece
- What is the AK 203 Deal with Russia:
Prelims Specific Topic
- This agreement was reached as part of a significant modernization drive for the infantry.
- As part of this transaction, the Indian Army would receive a number of AK-103 assault rifles from Russia.
- The arrangement was negotiated under emergency procurement or emergency financial powers granted to the three services in order for them to make vital acquisitions.
- The Indian army requires 770,000 AK-47 203 rifles.
- The first 100,000 will be imported, with the rest being made in India.
- In 2017, the Indian Army launched a four-year process to acquire approximately seven lakh rifles, 44600 carbines, and 44,000 light machine guns. India and Russia announced a massive agreement in September 2020 to manufacture AK-47 203 rifles in India.
- Make a modernisation plan:
- As part of a modernization drive to replace ageing and outmoded weapons, the Indian army is procuring a considerable quantity of light machine guns, battle carbines, and assault rifles.
- The following are some of the deal’s highlights:
- This gun will be manufactured by the Indo-Russia Rifles Private Limited joint venture (IRRPL).
- A single rifle will cost roughly USD 1100, including the expense of setting up a production plant and transferring technologies.
- Information on the AK-47 203 Rifles:
- It’s a modernised AK-103 variant from the 200 series, and it’s the most latest and technologically advanced version of the AK-47 rifle.
- The 5.5645 mm assault rifle used by the Indian Small Arms System (INSAS) since 1996 will be replaced with this rifle.
- Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/dac-clears-ak-203-Russia-deal/article37652359.ece