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29th November 2021

 No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    About the Electoral Bonds SchemePrelims & Mains
2.    What is the Gaganyaan MissionPrelims & Mains
3.    Different Cabinet CommitteesPrelims & Mains
4.    What is ‘In Flight Wifi’Prelims & Mains
5.    About the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav InitiativePrelims & Mains




Topic – Electoral related topics

  • Background:
  • The Supreme Court cited the possibility that political parties would misappropriate funds obtained through electoral bonds for other purposes, such as supporting terrorism or violent protests.
  • The court also wondered if the government had any “control” over how the money was spent by political parties.
  • Information on Electoral Bonds:
  • Electoral Bonds are a type of financial instrument that can be used to make payments to political parties in denominations of Rs. 1,000, Rs. 10,000, Rs. 1 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh, and Rs. 1 crore, with no upper limit. • The State Bank of India is authorised to issue and redeem these bonds, which have a fifteen-day validity period.
  • These bonds can be redeemed in a designated account of a registered political party.
  • The bonds are available for purchase for 10 days in each of the months of January, April, July, and October, as defined by the Central Government, by any person (who is an Indian citizen or who is incorporated or founded in India).
  • Individuals can purchase bonds on their own or in groups with other people.
  • The donor’s name is not printed on the bond.
  • Electoral Bonds’ Advantages:
  • The Electoral Bond Program acts as a check on traditional under-the-table donations by requiring cheque and digital paper trails of transactions. However, the concept has numerous key flaws that make it exceedingly divisive.
  • The Supreme Court Observed Electoral Bond Misuse for the Following Reasons:
  • Anonymity: The donor (who could be an individual or a company) and the political party are not compelled to reveal the source of the donation.
  • Asymmetry: The government knows who the contributor is at all times because the bonds are purchased through the State Bank of India (SBI).
  • This information imbalance has the potential to distort the process in favour of whichever political party is currently in power.
  • Black-money Usage: The scheme’s goal is undermined by the removal of a 7.5 percent cap on corporate donations, as well as the need that political contributions be declared in profit and loss statements and the requirement that a company be three years old.
  • A shell company can donate an unlimited amount to a political party anonymously, allowing businesses to easily round-trip monies held in tax havens in exchange for a favour or advantage.
  • The government’s position:
  • To receive electoral bond donations, only parties registered under the Representation of the People Act 1951 were eligible, and they couldn’t have received less than 1% of the vote in the previous election.
  • To counteract the political threat of black money, the Bonds only accept white money, as payments are made by check or demand draught, and KYC procedures are met.
  • Election Commission of India (ECI) support: The ECI was not against the bonds, but it was concerned about the anonymity aspect.
  • It also urged the court not to suspend the bonds, stating that they are an improvement over the former system of unaccountable cash funding.
  • Steps to Take:
  • To stop the vicious cycle of corruption and deterioration of democratic polity quality, effective political financing regulation, as well as radical reforms, are essential.
  • It is necessary to fill the gaps in current laws in order to make the entire government mechanism more responsible and transparent.
  • By requesting public awareness campaigns, voters can also play a role in bringing about important changes. If voters rejected politicians and parties that overspend or bribe them, democracy would advance a notch.
  • Source – The Hindu – 29/11/21 – Page Number 3



Topic – Science and Technology related topics

  • Background:
  • According to the Union Minister of Science and Technology, the Gaganyaan human spaceflight module will be launched after the second unmanned mission in 2022-23.
  • The Rs 10,000 crore Gaganyaan mission was scheduled to send a three-member crew to space for five to seven days by 2022, when India celebrates 75 years of independence.
  • The first unmanned mission will take place in December 2021.
  • It has been postponed because to the Covid-19-induced lockdown.
  • The mission is as follows:
  • Gaganyaan is an Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) project (ISRO).
  • According to the Gaganyaan programme, three Gaganyaan aircraft will be sent into orbit.
  • There will be two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight.
  • The Gaganyaan system module, termed the Orbital Module, would be home to three Indian astronauts, one of whom is a woman.
  • It will orbit Earth in a low-earth-orbit at a distance of 300-400 kilometres for 5-7 days.
  • The payload will include a crew module, which will be a spaceship that will transport humans.
  • The service module is powered by two liquid propellant engines.
  • It will be able to escape in an emergency and abort missions.
  • Because of its payload capabilities, the three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle GSLV Mk III, also known as the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3), will be used to launch Gaganyaan.
  • Gaganyaan Mission International Collaboration:
  • In Russia, astronauts will receive training.
  • In June 2019, the ISRO’s Human Space Flight Centre and the Russian government’s Glavkosmos inked a training deal that includes Russian support in applicant selection, medical evaluation, and space training.
  • On board the Il-76MDK plane, the applicants will study the systems of the Soyuz manned spacecraft in depth and receive training in short-term weightlessness.
  • The Soyuz is a Russian spacecraft. The Soyuz is an international spacecraft that delivers personnel and supplies to and from the International Space Station.
  • For trainee astronauts and space tourists, the Il-76MDK is a military transport plane with parabolic flight capability
  • Gaganyaan Mission’s Importance:
  • It will contribute to the country’s growth in science and technology, as well as motivate young people.
  • Gaganyaan will involve a number of agencies, laboratories, specialties, enterprises, and departments.
  • It will aid in the expansion of the industrial sector.
  • As part of steps aimed at promoting private participation in the space industry, the government has announced the foundation of IN-SPACe.
  • It will aid in the growth of technology for the greater good of society.
  • It will contribute to bettering international cooperation.
  • It’s likely that a single International Space Station (ISS) created by a group of countries won’t be enough. Gaganyaan will concentrate on regional necessities such as food, water, and energy security, all of which will need the creation of regional ecosystems.
  • Other upcoming Indian projects include:
  • India has unveiled preparations for a new moon expedition called Chandrayaan-3. It is scheduled to premiere in early 2021.
  • Shukrayaan Mission: The ISRO is also working on a Venus mission, dubbed Shukrayaan.
  • Source – The Hindu – 29/11/21 – Page Number 5



Topic – Parliament related topics

  • Committees of the Cabinet:
  • The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet.
  • The Cabinet’s Accommodation Committee.
  • Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
  • The legislative process is overseen by the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs.
  • Cabinet’s Political Affairs Committee.
  • Cabinet’s Security Committee.
  • The Cabinet Committee on Investment and Growth is one of the Cabinet’s subcommittees.
  • The Cabinet Committee on Employment and Skill Development is in charge of monitoring the government’s employment and skill development policy.
  • The Cabinet Committees are as follows:
  • Except for the Cabinet Committee on Accommodation and the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs, all committees are chaired by the Prime Minister.
  • They are extra-constitutional at the time of their emergence.
  • In other words, they aren’t mentioned in the Constitution. The Rules of Business, on the other hand, make it possible for them to exist.
  • The Indian executive is governed by the Government of India Transaction of Business Rules, 1961.
  • “The President shall adopt rules for the more convenient transaction of the Government of India’s business, and for the allocation of said business among Ministers,” says Article 77(3) of the Constitution.
  • Members of the Cabinet’s Standing Committees are appointed by the Prime Minister and given specific tasks. He has the power to expand or contract the number of committees.
  • Other Groups of Ministers (GoMs) have been formed to explore various issues/subjects in addition to cabinet committees.
  • Functions of Cabinet Committees:
  • They’re a management tool to assist the Cabinet in managing its vast workload. They enable a more in-depth analysis of policy challenges as well as improved coordination. They are founded on the notions of division of labour and effective delegation.
  • They make decisions, solve problems, and offer recommendations for the Cabinet’s consideration. Of course, the Cabinet has the authority to review their decisions.
  • Groups of Ministers:
  • Ad hoc committees are formed to give recommendations to the cabinet on a number of important issues and challenges.
  • Some of these GoMs have the authority to make decisions on the Cabinet’s behalf, while others can merely make recommendations.
  • The formation of GoMs has shown to be a practical and effective tool for inter-ministerial cooperation.
  • The relevant ministers are inducted into the different GoMs, which are then disbanded once the advice has been crystallised.
  • Source – The Hindu – 29/11/21 – Page Number 1



Topic – Science and Technology

  • Background:
  • The Indian government has given airlines permission to provide passengers with in-flight WiFi.
  • In 2018, the Telecom Commission approved in-flight Internet and mobile communications access on aircraft flying in Indian airspace.
  • Who has the power to grant permission:
  • The pilot may allow passengers on board an aeroplane in flight to access Internet services via Wi-Fi on board when a laptop, smartphone, tablet, smartwatch, e-reader, or point-of-sale device is used in flight mode or aeroplane mode.
  • What is the protocol for connecting in-flight:
  • In-flight connectivity systems use both terrestrial and satellite internet services.
  • Once flight mode is activated, the plane’s antenna will connect to terrestrial Internet services provided by telecom service providers.
  • Once the aeroplane reaches a height of 3,000 metres, the antenna will switch to satellite-based services.
  • Internet access will not be interrupted for passengers, and cross-interference between terrestrial and satellite networks will be avoided.
  • Upcoming challenges:
  • Airlines will cover the first cost of installing antennae aboard planes. As a result, the higher cost may be reflected in ticket prices.
  • Aside from the equipment, the increased weight and drag generated by the antenna will result in greater fuel costs for aeroplanes.
  • Due to technology and rules, calls can be made from planes, although many airlines do not want noisy cabins.
  • Benefits:
  • Passengers may make phone calls and access the internet while travelling on more than 30 airlines across the world. This service will now help Indian airlines compete against international carriers.
  • Business travellers love these services because they allow them to continue working without interruption.
  • While aboard the plane, other passengers can interact with their loved ones.
  • Source – The Hindu – 29/11/21 – Page Number 1


Topic – Prelims Specific Topic

  • The Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav has been launched by the Indian government to commemorate and celebrate 75 years of progressive India, as well as the rich history of its people, culture, and achievements.
  • This Mahotsav is dedicated to the people of India who have not only helped brought India this far in its evolutionary path, but also hold the power and capacity to enable the vision of activating India 2.0, driven by the spirit of Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  • Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav is a celebration of India’s progressive sociocultural, political, and economic identity. After a 75-week countdown to our 75th anniversary of independence, the official journey of the “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav” will begin on March 12, 2021, and end on August 15, 2022.
  • Source – The Hindu – 29/11/21 – Page Number 1

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