08th November 2021

S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About the UAPA Act, 1967 Prelims & Mains
2.    The Quad Grouping Prelims & Mains
3.    About MGNREGA Prelims & Mains
4.    The AY 4.2 Variant of COVID 19 Prelims & Mains
5.    Saline Gargle RT-PCR Technology Prelims Specific
6.    Samvatsari Prelims Specific


  1. About the UAPA Act, 1967: 


Topic – Internal Security related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • Srinagar students who celebrated Pakistan’s victory against India in the recent T20 World Cup cricket match will be charged under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.
  • Students will be marked as OGWs of Indian anti-India organizations on police records and denied all government-sponsored benefits in the future.
  • About the UAPA (Amendment) Act:
  • The Act gives central government full powers, which, if the Agency deems an activity illegal, may, through the Official Gazette, declare it so.
  • It has the death penalty and life imprisonment as the highest penalties
  • Key points:
  • Under UAPA, both Indians and foreigners can be charged.
  • It will apply to people in other countries even if crimes are committed in another country, outside of India.
  • Under the UAPA, the investigating agency may file a case sheet within 180 days of the arrest and the period may be extended further after reporting to the court.
  • According to the 2019 amendments:
  • The law gives the Director-General of the National Investigation Agency (NIA) the power to authorize the seizure or attachment of property if a case is being investigated by the agency.
  • The law empowers NIA officials, Inspector-level or higher, to investigate terrorism cases other than those perpetrated by the DSP or ACP or a senior government official.
  • It also included the provision of nominations for terrorism.
  • Delhi High Court defines UAPA contours:
  • In June 2021, issuing a ruling defining the provisions of Section 15 of the “ambiguity” of the Offenses (Prohibition) Act, 1967, (UAPA), the Delhi High Court set out some important provisions in setting out Section 15, 17. & 18 of the Act.
  • Sections 15, 17 and 18 of UAPA:
  • 15 charges a ‘terrorist act’.
  • 17 puts down the penalty for raising money by committing terrorism.
  • 18 charges ‘conspiracy’ and so on. committing an act of terrorism or any act of preparation to commit an act of terrorism ’.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Definition of illegal activity.
  • Power of the Institution under the law.
  • Does judicial review work in such cases?
  • Changes introduced by amendments in 2004 and 2019.
  • Can foreigners be prosecuted under this law?
  • Source –
  1. The Quad Grouping:


Topic – International Relations

  • Why in News:
  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh said on Sunday while stating that unexpected Paradigm shifts affects countries globally that the Quadrilateral grouping has been constituted keeping these things in mind.
  • About QUAD:
  • The quadrilateral security dialogue includes Japan, India, United States and Australia.
  • In March 2020, the Quadmembers held a meeting with representatives from New Zealand, South Korea and Vietnam to discuss their respective approaches to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Instigated by the US, this new grouping of key Indo-Pacific states was called “Quad Plus”.
  • The quadrilateral security dialogue includes Japan, India, United States and Australia.All four nations find a common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security.
  • Genesis of QUAD:
  • The grouping traces its genesis to 2004 when the four countries came together to coordinate relief operations in the aftermath of the tsunami.
  • It then met for the first time in 2007 on the sidelines of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) summit.
  • The intention was to enhance maritime cooperation between the four nations.
  • Recent developments and QUAD:
  • Today the enemy no longer needs to enter the border. He can also target our security apparatus from outside the border.
  • Alignment and re-alignment of global powers have added to the already changing security challenges.
  • The changing equations in Afghanistan are a recent and important example of this. These circumstances have forced every country to think on its strategy today.
  • The stand-off along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China in Eastern Ladakh
  • A positive agenda built around collective action in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, monitoring shipping for search and rescue or anti-piracy operations, infrastructure assistance to climatically vulnerable states, connectivity initiatives and similar activities.
  • Quad has been constituted keeping these things in mind.
  • Significance of the grouping:
  • Quad is an opportunity for like-minded countries to share notes and collaborate on projects of mutual interest.
  • Members share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific. Each is involved in development and economic projects as well as in promoting maritime domain awareness and maritime security.
  • It is one of the many avenues for interaction among India, Australia, Japan and the US and should not be seen in an exclusive context.
  • The Quad is a plurilateral mechanism between countries that share interest on specific matters.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • What is Quad?
  • Idea behind its genesis
  • Objectives of Quad
  1. About MGNREGA:


Topic – Government Schemes:

  • Why in News:
  • According to its financial statements, the financial corpus Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has been depleted in the current financial year.
  • Impacts:
  • This means that payments under MGNREGA will be delayed, unless governments use additional money to support the MGNREGA coffers.
  • About MGNREGA:
  • The program was launched in 2005 as a social initiative that guarantees the “right to work”.
  • A key point of this social and labour law is that local/state government will have to formally provide at least 100 days of wages in rural India to improve their quality of life.
  • Key objectives:
  • Generation of paid rural employment of not less than 100 days for each volunteer worker with unskilled work.
  • Continuing to ensure community inclusion by strengthening the livelihood of the rural poor.
  • Construction of durable infrastructure in rural areas such as springs, lakes, roads and canals.
  • Reduce urban migration from rural areas.
  • Building rural infrastructure through underutilized domestic workers.
  • The following are eligible ways to receive benefits under the MGNREGA program:
  • You must be a citizen of India to claim the benefits of MGNREGA.
  • A job applicant has completed 18 years of age.
  • The applicant must be part of a local family of that village (i.e. the application must be made through a local Gram Panchayat).
  • Applicants must volunteer for unskilled jobs.
  • Program implementation:
  • Within 15 days of submitting the application or from the date on which the job is sought, salary work will be provided to the applicant.
  • There is a right to receive an unemployment benefit grant, in the event that the work is not granted within 15 days of submission of the application or from the date of application.
  • The Social Audit of MGNREGA works is mandatory to enhance their accountability and transparency.
  • Prelims Link:
  • Under MGNREGA, what are the roles of Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, States, State Food Commission, Center?
  • What is payroll?
  • Who does social research?
  • Source –
  1. The AY 4.2 Variant of COVID 19:


Topic – Health related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • 4.2 is a sub-group of the new Delta variant of COVID-19.
  • The Delta variant, also known as B.1.617.2, first appeared in India in October 2020.
  • 4.2 (called “Delta Plus” and now called VUI-21OCT-01 by the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA)) sub-list contains 2 mutations in its spike protein – A222V and -Y145H.
  • Spread:
  • Currently, the United Kingdom makes 96% of AY 4.2 cases, followed by Denmark and Germany with one percent each. It has also been reported in the US, Israel and Russia.
  • In India, cases were found in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • How dangerous is AY 4.2:
  • Although the evidence in AY.4.2 is still emerging, as of now, it does not appear to cause the most serious diseases.
  • According to COVID-19 jabs, the small genealogy does not provide the vaccines currently used against it.
  • How do viruses develop and why:
  • Viral strains have one or more differentiating mutations that are different.
  • In fact, the virus’s goal is to reach a point where it can live with humans because it needs the host to survive.
  • Defects in viral RNA are called mutations, and viruses with this mutation are called mutations. Differences can vary with one or more conversions.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • What is Covid 19?
  • What is genetic mutation?
  • What is mRNA?
  • What is an RT-PCR test?
  • What is a genetic sequence?
  • What is different about anxiety?
  • Source –
  1. Saline Gargle RT-PCR Technology:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • Why in News:
  • Nagpur-based National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) had recently transferred the know-how of indigenously developed Saline Gargle RT-PCR technique to the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME)for commercialising it
  • NEERI is an institute under the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
  • What is it:
  • It is simple, fast, cost-effective, patient-friendly and comfortable.
  • It also provides instant test results and is well-suited for rural and tribal areas, given minimal infrastructure requirements.
  • How it works:
  • Saline Gargle RT-PCR method uses a simple collection tube filled with saline


  • The patient has to gargle the solution and rinse it in the tube
  • The sample is taken to the laboratory where it is kept at room temperature for about 30 minutes in a special buffer solution prepared by NEERI.
  • An RNA template is produced when this solution is heated and then processed for RT-PCR.
  • Source – The Indian Express
  1. Samvatsari :

 Prelims Specific Topic

  • It is a festival celebrated by the Jain community, especially the Shwetambara sect.
  • It is the last day of an eight-day observance of prayers called Paryushana Parva or Paryushana.
  • It falls on Shukla Panchami each year in the Jain calendar month of Bhadrapada
  • Samvatsari is also known as the Day of Forgiveness.
  • Source – The Times of India