DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS
06th & 7th October 2021
|S. No.||Topic Name||Prelims/Mains|
|1.||Interpol||Prelims & Mains|
|2.||Coal Crisis in India||Prelims & Mains|
|3.||Anti-Malarial Vaccine – Mosquirix||Prelims & Mains|
|4.||UN Peacekeepers||Prelims & Mains|
|5.||New Tiger Reserve announced in Chattisgarh||Prelims Specific|
|6.||Jim Corbett National Park||Prelims Specific|
|7.||‘Good Samaritan’ Scheme||Prelims Specific|
Topic àImportant International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
- Why in News:
- The Interpol has launched an online campaign to apprise people of major cyberthreats to help them protect their computer systems, networks and personal information from cybercriminals.
- The three-week campaign, from October 4 to 22, would be run primarily through social media.
- Objective of the campaign:
- With cyber threats becoming increasingly sophisticated, in addition to increased levels of remote work and dependence on digital devices, the campaign will focus on ransomware, online scams and phishing, and business email compromise.
- What is Interpol:
- he International Criminal Police Organisation, or Interpol, is a 194-member intergovernmental organisation.
- headquartered in Lyon, France.
- Formed in 1923 as the International Criminal Police Commission, and started calling itself Interpol in 1956.
- India joined the organisation in 1949, and is one of its oldest members.
- Interpol’s declared global policing goals include:
- Countering terrorism, promoting border integrity worldwide, protection of vulnerable communities, providing a secure cyberspace for people and businesses, curbing illicit markets, supporting environment security, and promoting global integrity.
- What is the Interpol General Assembly:
- It is Interpol’s supreme governing body, and comprises representatives from all its member countries.
- It meets annually for a session lasting approximately four days, to vote on activities and policy.
- Each country is represented by one or more delegates at the Assembly, who are typically chiefs of law enforcement agencies.
- The Assembly also elects the members of the Interpol Executive Committee, the governing body which “provides guidance and direction in between sessions of the Assembly”.
- Prelims Hot-Link:
- Who is a fugitive economic offender
- What is Interpol.
- Various notices issued.
- Overview of Interpol’s crime programmes.
- Coal Crisis in India:
Topic àInfrastructure – Energy
- India is the second-largest importer, consumer and producer of coal, and has the world’s fifth-largest reserves. It mainly imports from Indonesia, Australia and South Africa.
- How bad is the situation:
- The situation is “touch and go”, and could be “uncomfortable” for up to six months.
- The coal stocks at its thermal power plants can supply just days of fuel.
- On October 1, the power ministry said that the 135 thermal power plants in the country had only an average of about 4 days of coal stocks left.
- This is worrisome because coal-fired plants make up nearly 70% of India’s power source mix.
- Reasons for the shortage:
- Heavy September rains in coal mining areas hit production and delivery and plants failed to build up their stocks pre monsoon.
- Diamond had outstripped supply, despite increased buying from coal India.
- Sharp fall in imports due to high prices.
- Impact of the shortage:
- If industries face electricity shortages it could delay India’s economic reopening.
- Some businesses might downscale production.
- India’s population and underdeveloped energy infrastructure will mean the Power Crisis could hit long and hard.
- What next:
- Coal India and NTPC Limited are working to raise output from mines.
- The government is trying to bring more mines on stream to boost supply.
- India will need to amp its imports despite the financial cost
- Recent Reforms In Coal Sector:
- Commercial mining of coal allowed, with 50 blocks to be offered to the private sector.
- Entry norms will be liberalised as it has done away with the regulation requiring power plants to use “washed” coal.
- Coal blocks to be offered to private companies on revenue sharing basis in place of fixed cost.
- Coal gasification/liquefaction to be incentivised through rebate in revenue share.
- Coal bed methane (CBM) extraction rights to be auctioned from Coal India’s coal mines.
- Challenges ahead:
- Coal is the most important and abundant fossil fuel in India. It accounts for 55% of the country’s energy needs. The country’s industrial heritage was built upon indigenous coal.
- Commercial primary energy consumption in India has grown by about 700% in the last four decades.
- The current per capita commercial primary energy consumption in India is about 350 kgoe/year which is well below that of developed countries.
- Driven by the rising population, expanding economy and a quest for improved quality of life, energy usage in India is expected to rise.
- Considering the limited reserve potentiality of petroleum & natural gas, eco-conservation restriction on hydel project and geo-political perception of nuclear power, coal will continue to occupy centre-stage of India’s energy scenario.
- Prelims Hot-Link:
- About NCI.
- Key features.
- Types of coal.
- What is Coal Gasification
- How is it done?
- What are the byproducts
- Benefits of Gasificatio
- What is Underground Coal Gasification
- What is coal liquefaction
- Benefits of Liquefaction.
- Anti-Malarial Vaccine – Mosquirix
Topic ;Issues related to health:
- Why in News
- RTS,S/ASO1 (RTS.S), trade name Mosquirix, was recently endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
- It is the first and, to date only, vaccine shown to have the capability of significantly reducing malaria, and life-threatening severe malaria, in tests on young African children.
- About Mosquirix:
- The vaccine acts against falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite globally, and the most prevalent in Africa.
- It is also the first malaria vaccine to be introduced by three national ministries of health through their childhood immunization programmes — Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi.
- About Malaria:
- Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
- Malaria burden across the world:
- Malaria is most endemic in Africa, with Nigeria, Congo, Tanzania, Mozambique, Niger and Burkina Faso together accounting for over half the yearly deaths.
- Even now, the disease kills over four lakh every year, according to WHO figures.
- Children aged under 5 years are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria; in 2019, they accounted for 67% (274,000) of all malaria deaths worldwide.
- In 2019, India had an estimated 5.6 million cases of malaria compared to about 20 million cases in 2020.
- Countries that have eliminated malaria:
- Countries that have achieved at least 3 consecutive years of zero indigenous cases of malaria are eligible to apply for the WHO certification of malaria elimination.
- Over the last two decades, 11 countries have been certified by the WHO Director-General as malaria-free:
- United Arab Emirates (2007), Morocco (2010), Turkmenistan (2010), Armenia (2011), Sri Lanka (2016), Kyrgyzstan (2016), Paraguay (2018), Uzbekistan (2018), Algeria (2019), Argentina (2019), and El Salvador (2021).
- Challenges ahead:
- The latest vaccine is considered only the first step towards effective immunisation of the global population against malaria. This vaccine is able to prevent severe cases of malaria in only 30 percent of the cases, and the quest for more effective vaccines is still underway.
- Reasons for the failure to develop a malaria vaccine so far:
- The complexity of the life-cycle of the malaria-causing parasite, a part of which is spent in the human host.
- These parasites are also able to hide inside human cells to avoid being recognised by the immune system, creating further challenges.
- Lack of funding and interest in developing a malaria vaccine.
- The vaccine manufacturers have little incentive for malaria vaccines.
- Prelims Hot-Link:
- Difference and examples of various diseases caused by Virus and Bacteria.
- Malaria- causes and treatment.
- About WHO Certification process.
- Overview of WHO World Malaria Report 2020.
- UN Peacekeepers:
Topic ;Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.:
- Why in News:
- A total of 836 troops from the Indian Army serving with the UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan have been awarded the United Nations medal for their services to ensure durable peace in the world’s youngest country.
- The civilian, police and military personnel from 73 countries serving with the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) are responsible for protecting civilians, creating conditions conducive to the delivery of humanitarian aid, supporting the implementation of a revitalised peace agreement, and monitoring and investigating human rights.
- What is peacekeeping & what is it’s significance:
- United Nations Peacekeeping is a joint effort between the Department of Peace Operations and the Department of Operational Support.
- Every peacekeeping mission is authorized by the Security Council.
- The financial resources of UN Peacekeeping operations are the collective responsibility of UN Member States.
- According to the UN Charter, every Member State is legally obligated to pay their respective share for peacekeeping.
- UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel.
- Peacekeeping forces are contributed by member states on a voluntary basis.
- Civilian staff of peace operations are international civil servants, recruited and deployed by the UN Secretariat.
- UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles:
- Consent of the parties.
- Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate.
- Global partnership:
- UN peacekeeping is a unique global partnership. It brings together the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Secretariat, troop and police contributors and the host governments in a combined effort to maintain international peace and security.
- Its strength lies in the legitimacy of the UN Charter and in the wide range of contributing countries that participate and provide precious resources.
- Prelims Hot-Link:
- Who funds peacekeeping operations
- Role of UNSC.
- Composition of Peacekeepers
- Why peacekeepers are called as Blue Helmets
- Guiding principles of UN peacekeeping.
- Ongoing peacekeeping missions.
- Source àhttps://www.thehindu.com/news/international/over-800-indian-peacekeepers-deployed-with-unmiss-honoured-with-prestigious-un-medal/article36834508.ece
- New Tiger Reserve announced in Chhattisgarh:
Prelims Specific Topic:
- National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has approved the Chhattisgarh government’s proposal to declare the combined areas of the Guru Ghasidas National Park and TamorPingla Wildlife Sanctuary as a Tiger Reserve.
- The new Reserve is located in the northern part of the state, bordering Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.
- This will be the fourth Tiger Reserve in Chhattisgarh, after the Udanti-Sitanadi, Achanakmar, and Indravati Reserves.
- Please note that the Guru Ghasidas National Park was the last known habitat of the Asiatic cheetah in the country.
- How is a tiger reserve created:
- The approval is granted by NTCA under Section 38V(1) of The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- The State Government shall, on the recommendation of the Tiger Conservation Authority, notify an area as a tiger reserve.
- Jim Corbett National Park:
Prelims Specific Topic
- Why in News:
- Union Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change Ashwini Kumar Choubey has proposed to change the name of Corbett National Park to Ramganga National Park
- About the Jim Corbett National Park:
- It is located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand. The park encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river.
- The national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger.
- It is named after Jim Corbett who played a key role in its establishment.
- It is the oldest national park in India. It was the first area to come under the Project Tiger initiative in 1973.
- ‘Good Samaritan’ Scheme:
Prelims Specific Topic
- The Union government has launched a scheme for ‘Good Samaritan’. The scheme will be implemented from October 15.
- Under the Scheme:
- Anyone who saves the life of a road accident victim by rushing them to a hospital within the “golden hour” will get a cash reward of ₹5,000.
- Each Good Samaritan would also receive a certificate of appreciation.
- An individual could be awarded a maximum of five times in a year.
- The ministry also said there will be 10 national-level awards each year for the worthiest Good Samaritans, who would be selected from all those who have been awarded during the whole year and they would be given an award of ₹1 lakh each.
If more than one Good Samaritan saves the life of more than one victim, the amount of award would be ₹5,000 per victim saved, subject to maximum ₹5,000 per Good Samaritan