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12th October 2021

S. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    Indian Space AssociationPrelims & Mains
2.    Kalapani DisputePrelims & Mains
3.    Paddy Straw as Cattle Feed, as proposed by Punjab GovernmentPrelims & Mains
4.    Rajasthan’s Marriage Registration BillPrelims & Mains
5.    Bio-Decomposer to be used to tackle Stubble BurningPrelims Specific
6.    River LukhaPrelims Specific
7.    Hot SpringsPrelims Specific
8.    Tejaswini InitiativePrelims Specific


  1. Indian Space Association:




Topic à Space Awareness


  • Why in the News:


  • The Indian Space Association (ISpA) was recently officially launched by Prime Minister Modi.
  • It will be the first industrial organization for space and satellite companies.


  • Objectives:


  • ISpA aims to be the aerospace forum for the private sector in India and work with the Government of India and other key stakeholders in the aerospace sector to enable the nation to become self-sufficient in the region and become a global service provider.
  • ISpA aims to contribute to the vision of the Indian Government to make India Atmanirbhar and a global leader in the space sector, emerging rapidly as the next frontier of human growth.


  • Composition / members:


  • ISpA is represented by leading domestic and international companies with advanced skills in space and satellite technology.


  • Its founding members include Bharti Airtel, Larson & Toubro, Nelco (Tata Group), OneWeb, Mapmyindia, Walchandnagar Industries and Alpha Design Technologies.
  • Other key members include Godrej, Hughes India, Ananth Technology Limited, Azista-BST Aerospace Private Limited, BEL, Centum Electronics, Maxar India.




  • Activities:


  • The organization will engage with stakeholders across the environment to develop a supportive policy framework that fulfills Government’s vision.
  • ISpA will also work to build global connections to the Indian space industry to bring critical technology and investment to the country to create high quality job opportunities.
  • ISpA also plans to work closely with IN-SPACe to further the vision of the Government space.


  • Significance:


  • With our vast pool of talent, the growing power of start-up technology developed in homes and the private sector the country is in a position to understand what will be the biggest explosion in space.


  • India has the potential to become a technology leader and service provider that does not end the global space industry.
  • Globally, the private sector is increasingly contributing to the opening of space opportunities.


  • Changes in space:


  • For 75 years the country has gained independence, with the Indian space occupied by the single umbrella of the Indian government and government institutions.


  • Indian scientists have made great strides in recent decades, but the need for an hour is that there should be no limit to Indian talent, whether in the public sector or in the private sector.
  • Besides, according to ISRO, the current size of the global space economy stands at about USD 360 billion. However, India accounts for only 2% of the space economy with the potential to take up 9% of the global market share by 2030.


  • How are space-based communication networks growing:


  • Several Indian and foreign companies bet on satellite communications as the next line to provide online communications at a commercial level. These include SpaceL’s StarLink, SunW Bharti Mittal’s OneWeb, Project Kuiper for Amazon, US satellite maker Hughes Communications, etc.


  • Advantages of satellite internet:


  • Industry experts suggest that satellite satellite will be important for broadband deployment in remote and sparsely populated areas where global networks have not yet arrived.
  • At present, however, satellite communications are always limited to the use of companies and institutions that use them for emergency use, sensitive continental communications and remote connectivity.


  • Concerns and Challenges:


  • There are also concerns about the fullness of the orbital space with this much introduction. This can lead to an increase in space waste.



  1. Kalapani Dispute:




Topic à International Relations:


  • Why in News::


  • Nepalese political parties generally agree that Kalapani in Uttarakhand is part of Nepal’s territory, said a former Nepali foreign minister. India, however, rejected the claim.


  • Where is Kalapani located:


  • It is located in the eastern part of the Uttarakhand district of Pithoragarh.
  • It shares the northern border with the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China and Nepal east and south.
  • Lies between Limpopo, Lipulekh and Kalapani.
  • The area is a major regional dispute between Nepal and India covering at least 37,000 hectares of land in the High Himalayas.


  • Who controls the area:


  • The area is controlled by India but Nepal states the region for historical and graphic reasons.


  • What is the cause of the conflict:


  • The Kalapani region gets its name from the Kali River. Nepal’s claims to the region are based on the river as it became a symbol of the Nepalese state border following the Sugauli Treaty signed between the Gurkha rulers of Kathmandu and the East India Company after the Gurkha / Anglo-Nepal War (1814-16). This agreement was ratified in 1816.


  • According to the agreement, Nepal has lost the Kumaon-Garhwal districts to the west and Sikkim to the east.
  • According to Article 5, the King of Nepal renounced his claims in the western region of the Kali River, which originates in the Himalayas and flows into the vast plains of the Indian subcontinent.
  • According to the treaty, the British authorities recognized Nepal’s right to a region east of the Kali River.


  • Problems that exist:


  • According to Nepal experts, east of the Kali River should start at the source of the river. The source, according to them, is located in the mountains near Limpiyadhura, which is much higher than the rest of the river.
  • Nepal says the weight of the earth, high in the mountains that fall east of the whole area from Limpopo to the south, is theirs.
  • India on the other hand says the border starts in Kalapani which is India which is where the river begins.
  • The controversy stems from the different interpretations of the origin of the river and its various rivers that run through the mountains.
  • While Nepal’s claim to the eastern part of Kali is based on the origins of Limpopo, India claims that the river actually takes the name Kali near Kalapani


  • What is the current position:


  • Nepal has published a revised official map that includes a field from the Kimpiyadhura spring of Kali to Kalapani and the Lipulekh pass in the northeast of the triangular region as its territory.
  • Last year, Cabinet led by Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli has registered a proposal to amend the constitution to give it a constitutional position on the map.
  • Indian observers say the move makes any future solution to the Kalapani issue almost impossible as the constitutional guarantee will keep Kathmandu’s position stable.



  1. Paddy Straw as Cattle Feed, as proposed by Punjab Government




Topic à Conservation related issues:


  • Why in the News:


  • The Punjab government has proposed the use of paddy plant residues as fodder for animals, especially cattle.


  • Potential benefits of this step:


  • Punjab produces more than 20 million tons of paddy grass annually. Most of it is burned to the ground by farmers, leading to widespread air pollution in neighboring regions.


  • The total value of this plant is Rs 400 crore approx, calculated on average Rs 200 / quintal. Almost all of them burned in the fields.
  • This results in economic losses without loss of 77,000 tons of nitrogen and 5.6 million tons of Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) can be used in light production.
  • The nutritional value of 20 million tons of paddy is: 10 lakh of crude protein (CP), 3 lakh of crude protein (DCP), 80 lakh of nutrients (DDN) and phosphorus.
  • Therefore, this move is expected to help control racial burns during the Khalif season 2021 and protect the environment.


  • Challenges:


  • However, animals cannot graze on paddy grass directly from the fields.
  • This is because the high content of silica and lignin reduces its digestive properties. The high content of selenium in paddy grass also limits its use as fodder in animals compared to wheat grass.
  • Paddy also contains oxalates (2-2.5%) which lead to calcium deficiency.


  • Ways to deal with these challenges:


  1. Rajasthan’s Marriage Registration Bill:




Topic à Policies and Interventions for the vulnerable sections of population:


  • Why in the News:


  • The Rajasthan government has revoked the Rajasthan Marriage Registration Amendment Bill, 2021, after it became involved in disputes making it mandatory to register all marriages, including minor ones.


  • Key provisions of the Bill:


  • The Bill sought to amend Sections 5 and 8 of the Act, which deals with the appointment of Marriage Registration Police and the duty of parties to a marriage to submit a memorandum of registration.
  • The amendment authorizes women over the age of 18 to provide information on their marriages on their own.


  • Conflicting Views:


  • The amendment amends Section 8 of the Registration of Compulsory Marriages Act in Rajasthan, 2009, which deals with “the task of submitting a Memorandum”.


  • The original legal requirement required that marriage be compulsory within 30 days if the bride and groom were under 21 years of age. The age criteria for men and women were the same. Registration would be done by their parents.
  • The amended version states that parents must register the marriage within 30 days of the marriage “if the bride is under 18 and the groom is under 21”.
  • current Affairs


  • Why was this amendment made:


  • The government says this will bring years in line with a middle law that recognizes 18 years as the majority for a girl and 21 for a boy.


  • Registration of child marriages can help to end it as soon as possible and help the government reach out to other victims, especially widows.


  • Aftermath:


  • If approved, it will open the floodgates ”for child marriage in government and provide“ confirmation of social ills ”.
  • Compulsory registration of child marriage would make it legal.
  • Activists have also argued that the marriage certificate may, in fact, contradict the government’s claim, could be a barrier to obtaining a later withdrawal as the courts may cite the lack of a marriage certificate as a reason for not issuing it.


  • Background:


  • Rajasthan had banned child marriage by introducing the Child Marriage Prohibition Act in 2006.
  • The law appears to have helped reduce the incidence of child marriage, as shown in the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data.



  1. Bio-Decomposer to be used to tackle Stubble Burning:




Topic à Conservation related issues:


  • The Delhi government has begun spraying bio-decomposer solutions on farms to decompose the remnants of the post-harvest.


  • Background:


  • The Delhi government sees the bio-decomposer as a solution to racial burns and has been urging other countries to adopt this approach. The government first sprayed it last year and said the results were positive.





  • How are these bio-decomposers made:


  • Pusa Decomposer is a compound of seven fungi that produce enzymes to digest cellulose, lignin and pectin in paddy grass.


  • The fungus grows to 30-32 degrees Celsius, a temperature that occurs when paddy is harvested and sown wheat.


  • How are these decomposers used in fields:


  • The liquid formulation is used with decomposition pills and boiled for more than 8-10 days and then sprayed on the fields with plant extracts to ensure rapid decomposition.
  • Farmers can prepare 25 liters of water mixture containing four tablets, jaggery flour and flour. The mixture is sufficient to cover one hectare of land.
  • It takes about 20 days to complete the degradation process.


  • Benefits of PUSA decomposers:


  • Improves soil fertility and productivity as clumps act as compost and plant fertilizer and less fertilizer application is required in the future.
  • It is an efficient and effective, cheap, practical and effective way to stop racial burns.
  • It is an eco-friendly technology and a useful environment.


  1. River Lukha:


Prelims Specific Topic:


  • According to the Meghalaya government, a toxicological testing project has returned the Lukha River to the dead.
  • The Lukha River is located in the East Jaintia Hills region.
  • Lukha, which draws the southern part of East Jaintia Hills, is fed by the Lunar River, its main river with numerous streams from the hillsides of the Narpuh Reserve. The river flows into Bangladesh.
  • The government has said the toxicity testing program returns the river to the dead
  • Luke – the “fish depot” in the local language of Pnar – was considered more toxic than a decade ago.




  1. Hot Springs:


Prelims Specific Topic:


  • The ‘Hot Springs’ point in Ladakh is one of four points where Indian and Chinese troops retreated face to face during the May 2020 resistance.


  • Hot Springs, traditionally known as Kyam, is a camping site and a test site for the Indian border – Patrol Point-15 – on the Chang Chenmo River in Ladakh near the border with China.
  • The area got its name from the hot springs in the area.
  • It lies in the southeast of the Galwan Valley.
  • It is close to Kongka La, the world that shows the Line of Actual Control.
  • The passage also marks the border between China’s two most critical provinces – Xinjiang in the north and Tibet in the south.
  • Kongka La lies west of China’s G219 highway connecting Xinjiang with Tibet.




  1. Tejaswini Initiative:


Prelims Specific Topic:


  • It is a women-centered approach to safety in the north-west region – Delhi.
  • The program aims to reach out to women of all sectors of society and older women, as well as to protect the rights and dignity of women and children.
  • Jobs and assignments are made by women who beat workers.
  • It has led to significant growth in terms of accessibility and scope of work.



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