13th October 2021

S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    Malabar Exercise among the QUAD Nations Prelims & Mains
2.    About the Anti-Corruption Working Group Prelims & Mains
3.    What is International Energy Agency Prelims & Mains
4.    Central Zoo Authority Prelims Specific
5.    International Day of Girl Child Prelims Specific


  1. Malabar Exercise among the QUAD Nations



Topic : International Relations:

  • Why in the News:
  • The US recently said the magnitude of the Malabar Exercise in relation to the large scale drills could grow in the future.
  • And it was up to Quad’s partners to discuss opportunities for expansion.
  • Background:
  • India, the US, Japan and Australia have launched the second phase of the Malabar naval exercise in the Bay of Bengal, with the task of seeking to build upon the cooperation which was built in the first phase held in August.
  • About Malabar:
  • In 1992, Malabar began as a two-state maritime operation between India and the U.S.
  • It was expanded into a three-dimensional format with the introduction of Japan in 2015.
  • About the QUAD:
  • Quadrilateral formation include Japan, India, United States and Australia.
  • All four countries have the similarly democratically elected governments and the same trade interests and maritime security that are uninterrupted.
  • The idea was first introduced by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007.
  • However, the idea could not move forward as Australia pulled out of it
  • Importance of QUAD:

Quad is an opportunity for like-minded countries to share ideas and participate in projects of common interest.

  • Members share an open and free Indo-Pacific view.
  • It is one of the many channels of communication between India, Australia, Japan and the US and should not be seen in a special context.
  • Why is China so concerned about these changes
  • Beijing has long opposed the democratic coalition in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • It sees the Quadrilateral maritime as Asia-NATO which only wants to contain China’s rise.
  • Also, during the bilateral relations with China, India’s intention to include Australia in the Malabar agreement can only be understood as a step initiated against Beijing.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Composition of members and members.
  • Malabar training with participants.
  • Asia Pacific vs Indo-Pacific region: Geographical overview.
  • Important islands in the South China Sea.

Islands in the Indian Ocean region and related facts such as 6 degree station etc.

  1. About the Anti-Corruption Working Group


Topic : International Relations:

  • Why in News::
  • Context:
  • The G20 Working Group on Anti-Corruption, for the first time including sports as clearly within its jurisdiction, and thus has reached an agreement on high-level principles of Prevention and Combating Corruption.
  • All about the ACWG:
  • It was launched by G20 leaders at the 2010 Toronto conference.
  • It is responsible for reviving and implementing the G20 Anti-Corruption Program.
  • Submits its reports to the G20 leaders.
  • It works closely with and supports the activities of relevant international organizations, including the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the Financial Action Task Force.
  • What is the G-20:
  • The G20 is an annual conference of leaders from economically and rapidly developing countries.
  • Its members make up 85% of the world’s GDP, and two-thirds of its population.


  • The G20 summit is officially known as the “Conference on Financial Markets and the Global Economy”.


  • Genesis of G-20:


  • Following the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997-1998, it was agreed that the participation of major emerging market markets is necessary in the management of the global financial system, and G7 finance ministers agreed to establish a G20 Finance Minister meeting and the Central Bank Executive Meeting in 1999.


  • Full G20 membership countries are:


  • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and the European Union.


  • What is a G-20 +:


  • The G20 developing countries, also known as the G21 / G23 / G20 + is an association of developing countries that was launched on August 20, 2003.
  • Its origins can be traced to the Brasilia Declaration signed by the foreign ministers of India, Brazil and South Africa on June 6, 2003.
  • The G20 + caters for 60% of the world’s population, 26% of agricultural exports and 70% of its farmers




  • Prelims Hot-Link:


  • G20 vs G20 + vs G7 vs G8.
  • Objectives and small groups.
  • Summary of territories in member states.
  • Overview of the Brasilia Declaration of 2003.
  • Who is hosting the G-20 Leaders Conference in 2020?
  • When was the Anti-Corruption Team Found?





  1. What is International Energy Agency:




Topic à Conservation related issues:


  • Why in the News:


  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) has invited India, the world’s third-largest consumer of energy, to become a full member.


  • Its impact:


  • The proposal, if approved, would require New Delhi to increase oil reserves to a 90-day requirement.
  • Current strategic oil reserves equal to 9.5 days of its need.


  • Background:


  • In March 2017, India became a joint member of the IEA.


  • About the IEA:


  • Established in 1974 under the aegis of the OECD, the IEA is an independent government agency.
  • Its mission is guided by four areas of focus: energy security, economic development, environmental awareness and globalization.
  • Headquarters (Secretariat) are located in: Paris, France.


  • Roles and responsibilities:


  • It was founded in the wake of the 1973-1974 oil crisis, to help its members respond to the massive disruption of the oil supply, a role that continues to be fulfilled till today.
  • The IEA’s mandate has expanded over time to include monitoring and analysing global energy trends, promoting sound energy policy, and promoting international technology cooperation.


  • Its Composition:


  • It currently has 30 members & 8 association countries.
  • To be a member of IEA, a country must be a member state of the OECD.
  • But not all OECD members are members of the IEA.


  • To become a member the country must show that it has:


  • Crude oil reserves equal to 90 days of net import last year, which the government has access to immediately (even if not directly owned) and can be used to address global oil supply disruptions.
  • Demand prevention program to reduce national consumption by 10%.
  • Legislation and order implementation of Responsible Emergency Response Measures (CERM) nationally.
  • Legislation and measures to ensure that all oil companies under their jurisdiction report details when requested.
  • Existing measures to ensure the capacity to contribute to its IEA joint action plan.


  • Reports released by IEA:


  • Global Energy & CO2 Status Report.
  • World Energy Outlook.
  • Earth Power Statistics.
  • Earth Power Ratings.
  • Energy Technologies Ideas


  • Prelims Hot-Link:


  • Various reports released by the IEA.
  • OECD and OPEC formation? Who can become members?
  • Top producers and importers of crude oil worldwide?
  • Who are the members of the IEA?
  • What type of IEA member is India?





  1. Central Zoo Authority:


Prelims Specific Topic:


  • Why in the News:


  • Vision Plan (2021-2031) for Indian Zoos has just been released.
  • The vision plan aims to develop Indian zoos and strengthen the Central Zoo Authority (CZA).


  • About the Central Zoo Authority (CZA):


  • It is the official body that controls zoos in India.
  • It was founded in 1992.
  • The main objective of the Authority is to complement and strengthen national efforts to conserve the country’s rich ecosystem, especially wildlife, in line with the 1998 Zoo policy.


  • Key activities:


  • It enforces the minimum standards and practices for the protecting and caring of animals.
  • Every zoo in the country needs to get CZA recognition for its set-up and functioning.


  1. International Day of Girl Child:


Prelims Specific Topic:


  • Every year, October 11 is celebrated as the International Girls’ Day.
  • This event demonstrates the value of teenage girls and their efforts to gain strength and power by creating opportunities for them.
  • The United Nations General Assembly on December 19, 2011, adopted a resolution declaring October 11 as International Girl Child Day.
  • Theme of this year is: IDIGITAL Our Generation.


  • About Beijing Declaration:
  • It was the first conference to identify and address the rights of girls.
  • Held in 1995, at the International Conference on Women in Beijing, countries unanimously agreed to the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action – known as the best policy ever to promote the rights not only of women but also of girls.