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18th October 202

S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.     What is the impact of COVID-19 on TB Elimination Efforts Prelims & Mains
2.     About the COP 26 Climate Conference Prelims & Mains
3.     Global Hunger Index Prelims & Mains
4.     About China’s Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Test Prelims & Mains
5.     What is ‘Henrietta Lacks’ Prelims Specific


  1. What is the impact of COVID-19 on TB Elimination Efforts:


Topic :Government Policies related to Health:

  • Why in the News:
  • The Global TB report is released by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Key results:
  • The world is facing a major shift in the eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2020, thanks to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19).
  • A major impact was felt in relation to the discovery of new cases.
  • This means that a large number of cases have went away undetected due to reduced access to diagnoses and restrictions to contain the epidemic.
  • From 2016-2019, the number of new cases increased steadily, but dropped sharply to 20 percent by 2020.
  • The sharp decline in the number of reported cases of TB in 2020, compared to 2019, means that the gap between the number of people diagnosed with the disease and the number of young people diagnosed with the virus has “widened” by 2020.
  • The report estimated that the gap was 4.1 million cases.
  • India has also faced the issue of a large number of new cases.
  • About 41 percent of the total number of cases dropped in 2020, compared to 2019, came from India.
  • As a result, large numbers of TB cases disappeared from the country.
  • A dramatic decrease in the number of cases of new cases has resulted in an increase in TB deaths.
  • TB is ranked thirteenth in the world of deaths until 2019.
  • Due to major issues, it is now considered to be the second leading cause, only after COVID-19.
  • The key steps in the ‘End TB Strategy’ to reduce the burden of TB diseases by 2020 have led to a 35 % reduction in the number of TB deaths.
  • What is TB:
  • TB is an infectious disease caused by bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • It usually affects the lungs (TB of the lungs) but can also affect other sites.
  • The disease is spread when people with lung TB expel germs from the air, for example by coughing.
  • India’s efforts in this regard:
  • India is aggressively implementing its National TB Strategy.
  • In the last few years, 50 million people have been treated.
  • India seeks to achieve global expansion of TB prevention (TPT) treatment.
  • It also aims to achieve the goals of the UN High-Level Meeting (UNHLM) for the 40 million people who have started TB treatment and the 30 million on TPT worldwide in the remaining 18 months.
  • Sub-national Certification of States and Regions established in 2020- The campaign marks the UTs / Countries-UTs in “Progress to a TB-Free State” under the various categories measured with the prescribed rates of TB incidence.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • SDG in reducing TB.
  • What is NTEP and its purpose?
  • About the Central TB Division.
  • Annual TB report released by?
  • What is TB? How is it caused?
  • Source : https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/covid-coughs-up-new-problem-a-greater-vulnerability-to-tuberculosis/articleshow/86415368.cms
  1. About the COP 26 Climate Conference:


Topic : Conservation related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • The UK will host the COP 26 UN Climate Change conference from October 31 2021 to November 12 2021.
  • This year marks the 26th Party Conference (hence the name COP26) and will be held at the Scottish Event Center in Glasgow.
  • What is a COPconference:
  • The COP is related to the United Nations Climate Change Framework Convention (UNFCCC) established in 1994.
  • The UNFCCC was established to work “to reduce the impact of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.”
  • COP members have been meeting annually since 1995 (COP1 was held in 1995 in Berlin).
  • It lists the obligations of member states including:
  • Measures that are being developed to reduce climate change.
  • Collaboration in preparing for adaptation to the impact of climate change.
  • Promoting education, training and public awareness about climate change.
  • According to the UNFCCC, COP26 will work to achieve four goals:
  • Protect global net-zero in the middle of the century and keep 1.5 degrees accessible.
  • Synchronize protecting communities and natural areas.
  • Fundraising: To achieve our first two goals, developed countries must do well in their promise to raise at least $ 100bn in revenue by 2020.
  • ‘Complete the Paris Rulebook’: Leaders will work together to draft detailed rules that will help implement the Paris Agreement.
  • What could India do to achieve its goals:
  • It is time for India to renew its national contributions or NDCs. (The NDC describes in detail the various efforts taken by each country to reduce national emissions).
  • Multi-sectoral strategies are needed to bring about development.
  • We need to reduce the usage of electricity in various sectors including the electricity sector, the transport sector and start looking for carbon for each passenger.
  • It is also very important to find out how we can transform our coal industry.
  • The time may have come for India to announce that we will no longer build coal-fired power stations beyond what is on the line.
  • India also needs to strengthen the legal and institutional framework for climate change.
  • Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/cop26-climate-conference-and-why-it-is-important-7574493/
  1. Global Hunger Index:


Topic :Poverty related issues:

  • Why in the News:
  • Issued by Global Hunger Index 2021.
  • India’s performance:
  • India has lowered seven places to 101 out of 116 countries.
  • The level of hunger in India was ‘critical’ according to the report.
  • It is ranked fourth in South Asian countries.
  • Only 15 other countries are listed under India in the Index.
  • Bangladesh (76), Nepal (76) and Pakistan (92) fared better than India in the race.
  • By 2020, India is ranked 94th out of 107 countries in the Index.
  • India’s points in the Index over the past two decades have declined by 10 points.
  • Globally, India is ranked among the worst in ‘child abuse’ or ‘high weight’. Its performance was worse than Djibouti and Somalia.
  • What Is the Global Index for Hunger:
  • The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is published annually as part of a partnership between Concern Worldwide, the largest aid in Ireland and Welthungerhilfe.
  • The first GHI report was published in 2006.
  • GHI is intended to be a “tool designed to measure and monitor poverty at the global, regional, and national levels”.
  • How are countries calculated:
  • Four indicators were considered in calculating the world point out of 100, in order to determine the standard:
  • Malnutrition Childhood malnutrition (percentage of children under the age of five with low birth weight, indicating severe malnutrition).
  • Child disability (percentage of children under the age of five with low birth weight, indicating chronic malnutrition).
  • Child mortality (mortality rate of children under five years of age).
  • A three-step process based on scoring points for each indicator and its aggregation produces a national GHI score at 100 ‘GHI Severity Scale’, of which 0 is the best school and 100 is the worst.
  • Things that made the situation worse:
  • Climate change and the coronavirus (COVID-19) have exacerbated global food insecurity, including India.
  • However, why has India opposed against its position of the 2021 Global Hunger Index:
  • India has come out strongly against the Global Hunger Index publishers for years with questions of trends and data sources during the global downturn, from 94 in 2020 to 101 in 2021.
  • The Global Hunger Report 2021 reduced India’s status on the basis of FAO estimates.
  • Calling the FAO method “unscientific”, India has stated that “the scientific measure of malnutrition will require a measure of weight and height, and the method involved here is based on a Gallup survey based on pure human cell measurement”.
  • Also, India said “the report does not take into account the government’s major efforts to ensure food security for all people during the Covid, taking into account the verified information available”.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About GHI.
  • The performance of India.
  • Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/global-hunger-index-2021-india-slips-to-101st-spot-behind-pakistan-bangladesh-nepal-7572109/

  1. GS III
    About China’s Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Test:

Topic: Space related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • China in August 2021 tested a nuclear-powered vehicle capable of using a hypersonic glide that orbited the earth before speeding toward its target.
  • What is hypersonic speed:
  • Hypersonic speeds are 5 times or more than the speed of sound.
  • Concerns and Impacts on India and the World:
  • The weapon, in a sense, can fly over the South Pole.
  • That could be a major challenge for US troops because their missile defense systems are focused on the northern polar line.
  • India is deeply concerned about the recent developments that have led to declining relations with China in the past.
  • Such initiatives exacerbate the threat on our space assets as well.
  • Technology used:
  • The exact details of the technology used by China in this particular test are not known to the media.
  • But most vehicles have used scramjet technology.
  • What is scramjet technology:
  • Scramjets are a type of engine designed to control the speed of airflow in multiples of thesound speed.
  • In a scramjetengine, air from the atmosphere is blown into the engine fire chamber at a speed of more than two hundred on the Mach.
  • In the chamber, this air gets mixed with gasoline to heat the fire energy but the cruiser will be at the hypersonic speed of March six to seven. So it is called supersonic combustion ramjet or Scramjet.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Who founded HSTDV?
  • Which countries have successfully tested hypersonic technology to date?
  • What is a scramjet?
  • What are ICBMs? How many countries have ICBMs?
  • What are boat arrows?
  • What are ballistic arrows?
  • Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/chinas-hypersonic-glide-vehicle-test-7577005/
  1. What is ‘Henrietta Lacks:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman who died 70 years ago because of cervical cancer, was awarded post-mortem by the World Health Organization (WHO) on October 13, 2021.
  • Her biopsy samples, collected without her consent or understanding, made untold successes in medical science and assisted in research on the novel coronavirus (COVID-19).
  • The ‘cell line’ –which is the first immortal line of human cells permanently separated from the laboratory – was crucial to the development of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, polio vaccine, antiretroviral drugs and cancer.
  • Called ‘HeLa’ cells, Lack’s cells are also important in the study of Parkinson’s disease, reproductive health (including in vitro fertilization), chromosomal conditions, genetic mapping and precision medications.



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