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19th October 2021

S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    About the World Food Day Prelims & Mains
2.    What is the Kunming Declaration on Biodiversity Conservation Prelims & Mains
3.    About Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Prelims & Mains
4.    Urban Employment Scheme launched in Tamil Nadu Prelims & Mains
5.    About the Anticipatory Bail Prelims & Mains
6.    What is ‘Exercise Cambrian Patrol’ Prelims Specific
7.    About the DLX1 Protein Prelims Specific


  1. About the World Food Day:


Topic : Poverty related issues:

  • Why in the News:
  • World Food Day is celebrated annually on October 16 to commemorate the founding date of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization in 1945.
  • The theme for this year’s World Food Day is “Our actions are our better production – a better future, better nutrition, a better environment and a better life.”
  • Background:
  • World Food Day was established in November 1979, as suggested by former Hungarian Minister of Agriculture and Food Dr. Pal Romany.
  • It gradually became a way of raising awareness about hunger, malnutrition, sustainability, and food production.
  • About FAO:
  • It is a special United Nations organization that is spearheading international efforts to combat hunger.
  • Headquarters: Rome, Italy.
  • Formed on: 16 October 1945.
  • FAO Mission:

Their mission is to achieve food security for all and to ensure that people always have access to adequate quality food to live an active, healthy life.

  • Important reports and programs of FAO:
  • World Report on Food Problems.
  • Every two years, FAO publishes the State of the World’s Forests.
  • FAO and the World Health Organization formed the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1961 to improve dietary standards, guidelines and documentation.
  • In 1996, FAO organized the World Food Summit.
  • The Summit concluded with the signing of the Rome Declaration, which set out the goal of reducing the number of homeless people by 2015.
  • In 1997, the FAO launched TeleFood, a concert campaign, sporting events and other energy-intensive activities, celebrities and concerned citizens to help fight hunger.
  • The FAO Goodwill Ambassadors program was established in 1999.
  • The ultimate goal of this program is to attract the public and the media to the unpredictable situation in which an estimated 1 billion people continue to suffer from chronic hunger and malnutrition in an unprecedented period of plenty.
  • In 2004 the Food Guidelines were adopted.
  • FAO created the International Plant Protection Convention or IPPC in 1952.
  • The FAO is included in the International Agreement on Crops for Food and Agricultural Plants, also known as the Planting Agreement, Seed Agreement or ITPGRFA, and came into effect on 29 June 2004.
  • The Global Agricultural Heritage Partnership (GIAHS) Program was considered in 2002 during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About FAO, establishment and objectives.
  • Important reports and programs

Source : https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/world-food-day-india-at-101st-rank-in-ghi-country-angry-over-methodology-to-determine-hunger/articleshow/87071103.cms

  1. What is the Kunming Declaration on Biodiversity Conservation:


Topic : Conservation related issues:

  • Why in News:
  • The “Kunming Declaration” was adopted by more than 100 countries at the 15th annual COP Summit of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD).
  • COP-15 Theme: “Environmental Development: Building a Shared Future for Life on Earth”.
  • About the Kunming Declaration:
  • It urges agencies to adopt to the “most common” biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognize the importance of conservation in protecting human health.
  • In recognition of this, nations have pledged to support the development, adoption and implementation of an effective post-2020 program, the Cartagena Protocol on Capacity Building.
  • Signatory countries must ensure that disaster recovery programs contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, to promote sustainable and inclusive development.
  • The proclamation expects signatory countries to harmonize Biodiversity programs with the three 30-year UN programs in ‘Sustainable Development’, ‘Ecosystem Restoration’, ‘Ocean Science for Sustainable Development’.
  • About the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992:
  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) came into force on 29 December 1993.
  • It has three main objectives:
  • Biodiversity conservation.
  • Sustainable use of biodiversity components.
  • Equitable and equitable distribution of benefits from the use of genetic resources.
  • The agreement was initiated on 5 June 1992 at the United Nations Environment and Development Conference (Rio “Earth Summit”).
  • This agreement is a legally binding agreement approved by 180 countries.
  • The CBD Secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada and operates under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Program.
  • The areas of agreement are conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biological resources and equitable sharing of the benefits in order to ensure their sustainable use.
  • The conference came into effect in 1993.
  • It provides non-binding guidelines on various aspects relating to biodiversity conservation, intellectual property rights, protection of security and the rights of indigenous peoples.
  • What is the 30 by 30 Target:
  • The Kunming Declaration sets out the target of ’30 by 30 ′ which is a key proposal discussed in COP15, which will be able to pay for 30% of land and sea land protected by 2030.
  • Apart from this, there is also a plan to halve the use of chemicals in agriculture and to eliminate the generation of waste in plastic waste.
  • Source : http://sdg.iisd.org/news/biodiversity-conference-opens-with-signs-of-renewed-commitment/
  1. About Sir Syed Ahmad Khan:


Topic : Modern Indian History:

Why in the News:

  • Recently marked the 20th anniversary of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s birthday.
  • Who was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan:
  • He was born on October 17, 1817.
  • Sir syed Ahmed khan was a teacher, politician, social reformer etc.
  • He was the founder of Aligarh muslim university.
  • Why the controversy:
  • Sir syed Ahmed khan is often criticized as the father of the two-nation faith which led to the formation of two separate nations namely India and Pakistan.
  • Some historians believe that the division of Hinduism and Islam in India was the result of a two-state solution to the Syrian ideology.
  • Did the concept of “two nations” prevail during his time:
  • “Nationalism” as a conscious factor was a feature of 20th-century Europe also, where it got moved into India.
  • Prominent historian Anil Seal aptly stated that in Sir Syed’s day, “there were no two nations, not even one nation, there was no nation at all.”
  • Until 1898, when Sir Syed died for the last time, there was no such thing as an “Indian” nation, nor did the founding fathers of the Indian National Congress say so.
  • Sir Octavian Hume, the founder of the INC, spoke of “civil society”, not the nation.
  • Sir Syed’s national concept:
  • Sir Syed’s concept of the nation was intertwined with that of the world.
  • Sir Syed believed in a multicultural society in which all cultural communities should have the right to equality under the state.
  • Reason for founding of the Aligarh Muslim University:
  • The main reason for the establishment of this institution was the tragic reliance of the Muslims.
  • Their religious fervor did not allow them to access the educational institutions offered at public schools and colleges.
  • Therefore, special arrangements were needed foot-r their education.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
  • His contributions to nationalism.
  • Contributions to the education sector.
  • About the concept of “two nations”.
  • Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/sir-syed-unfailingly-stood-for-all-indians/article37033221.ece
  1. GS II Urban Employment Scheme launched in Tamil Nadu:

Topic : Policies and initiatives for the vulnerable sections:

  • Why in News:
  • The government of Tamil Nadu has issued directives to implement the urban employment system in the government in an effort.
  • The program aims to provide livelihoods and social security by increasing employment opportunities and by creating and maintaining public property.
  • About the program:
  • This is an urban employment scheme that will be used by the Government of Tamil Nadu in line with the Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Scheme (MGNREGS).
  • It mainly aims to improve the lives of the urban poor.
  • Need for:
  • Unlike other states of India, the urban population in Tamil Nadu is growing rapidly and will reach 60% of the total population by 2036.
  • A total of four crore people now live in urban areas, accounting for 53% of the total population.
  • However, many of them lost their jobs as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic.
  • Implementation of the scheme and its key features:
  • Under this scheme, local workers will be used to perform activities such as desilting of water bodies and maintenance of community parks and other facilities.
  • 50% of a person’s total days under this plan will be reserved for women.
  • Women and men would be paid the same wage for the same unskilled and unskilled labor.
  • The TN Urban Employment Scheme is based on recommendations made by a committee headed by former Reserve Bank of India Governor C. Rangarajan.
  • About MGNREGA:
  • The program was launched in 2005 as a social initiative that affirms the “right to work”.
  • A key idea of ​​this social cum labour law is that local government will have to formally provide at least 100 days of employment to workers in rural India to improve their quality of life.
  • Key objectives:
  • The generation of paid domestic work of not less than 100 days for each volunteer worker in unskilled labour sector.
  • Ensuring social inclusion by strengthening the livelihood of the rural poor.
  • Construction of durable material in rural areas such as springs, lakes, roads and canals.
  • Reduce urban migration from rural areas.
  • Create rural infrastructure using unused rural workers.
  • The following are eligibility criteria to receive benefits under the MGNREGA program:
  • One must be an Indian citizen to claim the benefits of MGNREGA.
  • Job seeker has completed the age of 18 years at the time of application.
  • The applicant must be part of a local family (e.g. the application must be made by a local Gram Panchayat).
  • Applicants must volunteer for unskilled jobs.
  • Scheme implementation:
  • Within 15 days of application or from the date of application, the remuneration will be paid to the applicant.
  • The right to receive an unemployment benefit in the event of employment not being granted within 15 days of application or from the date on which the employee is required.
  • Public Audit of MGNREGA’s activities is mandatory, which provides for accountability and transparency.
  • Gram Sabha is the main forum for wage seekers to raise their voices and make demands.
  • It is Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat that approves the workshop under MGNREGA and fixes their priorities.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Under MGNREGA, what are the roles of Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, States, State Food Commission, Center?
  • What are work cards and are issued by whom?
  • Who sets up the State Employment Equity Fund?
  • What is a pay job?
  • Who does social research?
  • Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chennai/tn-govt-urban-employment-scheme-7572428/
  1. About the Anticipatory Bail:


Topic : Constitutional Provisions:

  • Why in News:
  • The Supreme Court held that a superior court could set aside the expected bail order if there was sufficient evidence to suggest that matters such as the size and role of the defendants in the case were not considered by the lower court.
  • About the Anticipatory Bail:
  • The granting of the anticipatory bail under Section 438 was introduced when the CrPC was amended in 1973.
  • Contrary to the usual bail, granted to an arrested person, on pending bail, a person is ordered to be released on bail even before arrest under the Anticipatory Bail.
  • Time frame: High Court (SC) in the case of Sushila Aggarwal v. The State of NCT of Delhi (2020) has issued a landmark decision, declaring that no time limit may be set for the expected bail application and may continue until the end of the case.
  • It is issued only by the Sessions Court and the High Court.
  • Significance:
  • The reason for the inclusion of Section 438 in the Act was the adoption by parliament of the fundamental principle of human liberty in a free and democratic country.
  • Parliament wishes to promote respect for personal freedom and allow for a higher position in the basic law of criminal justice, so that everyone is considered innocent until proven guilty.
  • Recent observations made by the Supreme Court on its use:
  • HCs and SCs are empowered to grant the accused the anticipatory bail due to the mandate that the Constitution places on the right to freedom guaranteed under Article 21.
  • The granting or refusal of an application under the CrPC directly affects the right to life and liberty of the individual.
  • Therefore, the provision needs to be read openly, and considered in its beneficial nature.
  • Courts should not read about the restrictions that the legislature did not give explicitly.
  • In doing so, the Supreme Court may exercise its jurisdiction under Article 142 of the Constitution to pass that order.
  • The need for such protection:
  • The respondent, without being a suspect, may also be the primary caregiver or sole breadwinner.
  • His imprisonment could leave his loved ones in a state of famine and neglect.
  • In the 1980 case of Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab, a five-judge panel of the Supreme Court headed by Chief Justice YV Chandrachud ruled that 438 (1) should be interpreted in accordance with Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of health and personal freedom).


  1. What is ‘Exercise Cambrian Patrol’:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • The Indian Army team won a gold medal at the Exercise Cambrian Patrol organized in Brecon, Wales (UK).
  • The Ex Cambrian Patrol has been called the ‘Military Recruitment Olympics’ among the world’s soldiers.
  • Organized by the UK Army, it is considered the ultimate test of human endurance and team spirit.


  1. About the DLX1 Protein:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • Researchers have found that the genetic code (DLX1) plays a key role in the growth of the jaw, bone, and interneuron in the brain plays a vital role in the growth and development of prostate cancer.



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